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Referencing & Plagiarism Awareness: 8. Referencing examples

Referencing Style Examples

Select the relevant examples below for your referencing style.  If you are not sure which style to choose, take a look at 'Which referencing style to use?'

If you need any help or guidance contact your librarian at: librarians@aber.ac.uk

Further Tips:

  • Look at the marking scheme for your assignment - how many marks can you gain for your reference list and what are the criteria you need to meet?
  • Ensure you have allowed enough time in your assignment planning for the reading and the referencing.
  • Read widely: start with the Aspire reading list in your Blackboard module and develop your subject searching skills during your course.
  • Organise and save your references while you are researching for your essay.

APA - American Psychological Association

This page provides examples of commonly cited sources. Please refer to the APA Departmental guide here:

This style uses an author-date format for the in-text citations and then the full source details are listed A-Z in the reference list.

Examples of In-text citations:
  • As part of the narrative e.g. Adams (2019) argues that...
  • Directly following a phrase e.g. The current guide provides an overview of APA (Adams, 2019).

See the following tabs for advice on creating the reference list.

Creating the reference list:

When referencing a book follow this order:

  • Authors, surnames followed by initials
  • Year of publication, in brackets
  • Title, in italics
  • Edition of book (if not first edition)
  • Publisher
Example: Book, one author:

Reference list:

Smyth, T.R. (2004). The principles of writing in Psychology. Palgrave MacMillan.

When referencing an e-book follow this order:

  • Authors or editors (Eds.), surnames followed by initials.
  • Year of publication, in brackets.
  • Title of book, in italics.
  • Edition (if not the first edition)
  • URL or DOI link
Example: e-book

Bennett, P. (2006). Abnormal and clinical psychology: An introductory textbook (2nd ed.). http://www.eblib.com/ 

When referencing a book chapter follow this order:

  • Chapter authors, surname first, followed by initials.
  • Year of publication
  • Chapter title
  • In + authors of the whole book (Initials followed by surname), + Eds.
  • Title of the book
  • Pages of chapter
  • Publisher
Example: chapter from a book

Smyth, M. J., & Filipkowski, B.K. (2010). Coping with stress. In D. French, K. Vadhara, A.A. Kaptein, & J. Weinman (Eds.), Health Psychology (pp. 271-283). Blackwell Publishing.

When referencing an article follow this order:

  • Authors, surnames followed by initials.
  • Year of publication, in brackets.
  • Title of the article.
  • Journal title, in italics.
  • Volume of the journal.
  • Issue of the journal, in brackets.
  • Page range of the article.
  • DOI of the article, if available.
Example: Journal article

Beaman, P.C., & Holt, J.N. (2007). Reverberant auditory environments: the effects of multiple echoes on distraction by 'irrelevant' speech. Applied Cognitive psychology, 21(8), 1077-1090. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1315

When referencing a webpage follow this order:

  • Author surname, followed by initials OR name of organisation. Title of webpage if there's no author.
  • Year of publication (in brackets).
  • Title.
  • URL.
Example: webpage

World Health Organisation. (2019). WHO updates global guidance on medicines and diagnostic tests to address health challenges, prioritise highly effective therapeutics, and improve affordable access. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/09-07-2019-who-updates-global-guidance-on-medicines-and-diagnostic-tests-to-address-health-challenges-prioritize-highly-effective-therapeutics-and-improve-affordable-access

document on the web can include government reports or policy documents. They are referenced differently to a webpage:

  • Authors, including initials.
  • Year of publication, in brackets.
  • Title, in italics.
  • URL.
Example: Document on the web

Howe, C., Mercer, N. (2007). Children's social development, peer interaction and classroom learning. https://cprtrust.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/research-survey-2-1b.pdf

Use newspaper articles as a starting point for research. They are not considered academic sources. Use the following format:

  • Author surnames, followed by initials.
  • Year, month and date of publication, in brackets.
  • Title of article.
  • Newspaper title, in italics.
  • Page range OR URL, if an online article.
Example: Newspaper article:

Sisley, D. (2020, Feb 22). Can science cure a broken heart?. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2020/feb/22/can-science-cure-a-broken-heart

Social media posts, such as Twitter and Facebook, are not considered academic sources. Use them as a starting point and reference to your academic research. Use the following format:

  • Username or group name
  • Date as year, month, day. In brackets. If there's no date put (n.d.)
  • Post title, followed by type of source in [ ] brackets.
  • Retrieved, followed by month, day, year,
  • from URL
Example: Social Media post

Barack Obama. (2009, October 9). Humbled [Facebook update]. Retrieved May, 14, 2020, from http://www.facebook.com/posted.php? 
 id=6815841748&share_id=154954250775&comments=1#s154954250775 

See the full departmental referencing guide to APA 6th here:

IoP Journal Guidelines

Please note, this information is taken from the Institute of Physics Author Guidelines for IOP Journals. It can be accessed here: https://publishingsupport.iopscience.iop.org/authoring-for-journals/

Journal articles

References to journal works should include:

  • Author(s): surname(s) and initial(s)
  • Year
  • [Title of article (optional, but see below)]
  • Standard abbreviated journal title (in italics)
  • Part of journal (e.g. A, B, etc, if appropriate)
  • Volume number (in bold)
  • Page number, page range or article number

Example:

  • Cantillano C, Mukherjee S, Morales-Inostroza L, Real B, Cáceres-Aravena G, Hermann-Avigliano C, Thomson R R and Vicencio R A 2018 New J. Phys. 20 033028

For more than ten authors, the name of the first author should be given followed by et al.

Note that the article title is not mandatory, except for Journal of Neural Engineering (J. Neural Eng.)Measurement Science and Technology (Meas. Sci. Technol.)Physical Biology (Phys. Biol.)Physiological Measurement (Physiol. Meas.) and Physics in Medicine and Biology (Phys. Med. Biol.).

If no individual is named as the author, the reference may be by a collaborative group of authors or by a corporate body, e.g.:

  • The ASDEX Upgrade Team 2002 Theory-based modelling of ASDEX Upgrade discharges with ECH modulation Nucl. Fus42 L11

If a collaboration is appended to one or more authors, the name of the collaboration must come before the year, e.g.:

  • Nakamura K (Particle Data Group) 2010 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys37 075021

Books

References to a book should include:

  • Author(s): surname(s) and initial(s)
  • Year
  • Full title (in italics, the initial letter of each significant word should be upper case; note that if a word is hyphenated then both parts should have an initial capital letter; for example, Non-Classical Mechanics)
  • Town of publication
  • Publisher

Example:

  • Whelan C T 2018 Atomic Structure (Bristol: IOP Publishing)

References to a book may include (optional):

  • Chapter title (lower case roman; caps only for first word and proper nouns)
  • Edition (e.g. 1st edn) (if any)
  • Volume number (if any, given after the contraction ‘vol’)
  • Editor(s) (if any, initials before the surname(s) and preceded by the contraction ‘ed’ [no full point] even if more than one editor)
  • Chapter and/or page number(s) (if appropriate)

Example:

  • Leung C-W and Ng C-K 2018 Spectra of commutative non-unital Banach rings Advances in Ultrametric Analysis (Contemporary Mathematics vol 704) ed A Escassut et al (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) p 91

Conference proceedings

References to conference papers should include:

  • Author(s): surname(s) and initial(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of conference (in italics, initial letter of each significant word should be upper case)

Example:

  • Mahanta N K and Abramson A R 2012 13th Intersociety Conf. on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems

References to a conference proceedings may include (optional):

  • Paper title
  • Place and date (month and/or year) of conference (in italics and within parentheses, separated by commas)
  • Volume number
  • Editors
  • Town of publication
  • Publisher
  • Page numbers/other paper designations

SPIE Proceedings, AIP Conference Proceedings and IEEE Transactions

These should be treated as journals:

  • Levin A D and Shmytkova E A 2015 Proc. SPIE 9526 95260P
  • Smith M 2004 AIP Conf Proc. 94 340–9
  • Stoffels E et al 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 1441–57

Conference series

Conference series should include the title of the conference and the title of the series but not the publisher.

The exceptions are Journal of Physics: Conference Series (J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.), IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci.) and IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.), which should be set as journal references, e.g.:

  • Barry R Holstein 2009 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 173 012019
  • V V Kramarenko et al 2016 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 43 012029
  • S Adarsh et al 2016 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 149 012141

Web links

Only permanent or persistent web links should be used in reference lists. Examples of acceptable links include:

  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • PubMed identifier (PMID)
  • PubMed Central reference number (PMCID)
  • SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Bibliographic Code
  • arXiv e-print number

Pre-prints

References to pre-prints should include:

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Pre-print number

Example:

  • Jones R and Brown A 2011 arXiv:0912.1470

Theses

References to theses should include:

  • Author surname and initials
  • Year
  • Type of thesis
  • Institution

Examples:

  • Roberts P 1970 MSc Thesis University of Manchester
  • Dobson C T J 1968 Magnetic transport in reaction–diffusion phenomena PhD Thesis Brunel University, London

The title is optional.

Lecture Notes

References to lecture notes should include:

  • Author surname and initials
  • Year
  • Lecture title
  • Institution

Example:

  • Chandrasekhar J R 2003 Modelling aspects of model based dynamic qos management by the performability manager Lecture Notes Institute of Technology Delhi, India

Accepted or submitted

References to articles that are accepted or submitted should include:

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Standard abbreviated journal title (in italics)
  • Either ‘accepted’ or ‘submitted’

Example:

  • Jones R and Brown A 2011 Class. Quantum Grav. accepted

In preparation

References to articles that are in preparation should include:

  • Author(s)
  • Year of preparation
  • Article title
  • ‘In preparation’ (within parentheses)

Example:

  • Jones R and Brown A 2011 Class. Quantum Grav. in preparation

Non-bibliographic text

References that do not contain bibliographic information (i.e. they do not refer to other pieces of work) should be set as a footnote within the text and cited at the appropriate location.

MHRA - Modern Humanities Research Association

The English & Creative Writing department's Stylesheet for Essays, Dissertations and other Coursework can be found in Blackboard. This is a summary of the advice and examples provided there. Have the stylesheet to hand while you work and refer to it for more detail. Your work should be double-spaced and you are advised to be guided by the punctuation in the example references.
The stylesheet is based on the MHRA Style Guide (3rd edition).

The MHRA quiz at the end of this LibGuide is based on the English & Creative Writing department's stylesheet.

If you are a History & Welsh History student or a Welsh & Celtic Studies student, you must follow the referencing guidance supplied by your department when citing and referencing in your written work.

 

 

Citing means mentioning the titles of books and other items in your work

  • When you mention the title of a self-contained publication (For example, a book, a journal, or a newspaper), you italicise the title.
  • When you mention the title of something which is only part of a self-contained publication (For example, a chapter, a single poem, or an article) you enclose the title in single inverted comms

Example:

C. J. Atkin, in a recent article called ‘Busy Old Fools’ in Essays in Criticism, discusses Donne’s ‘The Sun Rising’, relating it to several aspects of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Her conclusions are different from those she reached a few years ago in her book Renaissance Resonances, in which Chapter Seven, ‘Donne Speaks to Shakespeare’, deals more briefly with the same topic.

In the example

  • ‘Busy Old Fools’ is a single article in a journal
  • Essays in Criticism is a journal
  • ‘The Sun Rising’ is the title of a single poem
  • Hamlet is a complete play
  • Renaissance Resonances is a book
  • ‘Donne Speaks to Shakespeare’ is a chapter in a book

A full reference to each citation must be included in the bibliography.

Short quotations can be anything up to 40 words and are enclosed single inverted commas.

The first quotation from a source

The first quotation from a source is referenced with a footnote. How do I insert a footnote into an MS Word document?

If there are subsequent quotations from the same source in the work, the first reference is followed by a sentence explaining how subsequent references will be referred to. 

Example

It has been argued that 'history first ended at the beginning of the nineteenth century.'¹
________

¹Jerome Christensen, ‘The Romantic Movement at the End of History’, Critical Enquiry, 20 (1994), 452-76 (p. 456). Subsequent references to this source are given in the text as ‘Christensen’ followed by the page number.

Note

  • The author’s name is given as ‘first name surname’
  • A specific page or page range is provided, lower case ‘p.’ for ‘page’ and ‘pp.’ for ‘pages’, to provide the location of the quotation
  • You can replace the author’s name in the ‘Subsequent references…’ sentence with a short title of the source if you are quoting several sources by the same author in your work.
Subsequent quotations from the same source

A subsequent quotation from the same source is referenced by a brief reference in brackets within the work as shown in the example.

Example

For the Romantics, an acute ‘sense of cultural belatedness’ (Christensen, p. 467) co-existed with their equally strong sense of being cultural pioneers.

Long quotations are

  • more than 40 words
  • introduced by a colon in your work
  • separated by a blank line (double-spaced) before and after
  • indented throughout from the left-hand margin but not centred
  • referenced in the same way as short quotations; the brief reference in bracket in the example below indicates this is not the first quotation from Boland in this work

Example

Boland has argued that the trope of ‘woman-as-nation’ often led to stylized and idealised depictions of Irish womanhood:

The women in Irish male poems tended to be emblematic and passive, granted a purely ornamental status. Once the feminine image in their poems became fused with a national concept then both were simplified and reduced. It was the absence of women in the poetic tradition which allowed women in the poems to be simplified. (Boland, p.47)

Later in the same essay, Boland gives a number of examples of this process by which ‘woman’ has often been ‘simplified’ in Irish poetry.

Verse is treated in a similar way to other quotations however there are some differences.

  • The reference needs to be to the line(s) (where available), rather than the page(s). Verse quotations get: ‘l.’ for ‘line’ and ‘ll.’ for ‘lines’. 
Short verse quotation

A short verse quotation is two lines of verse from a poem or play

  • Indicate a line break with a forward slash /

Example (not the first reference Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales as indicated by the brief reference in brackets)

‘Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote / The droghte of Marche hath perced to the rote’ (Chaucer, ll. 1-2).

Long verse quotation

Follow the lineation of the original. This means that you neither add the ‘/’ to indicate line breaks, nor do you run lines together into a block of prose.

The bibliography is a list of ALL of the sources cited or referenced in your essay, but does not include those you have only consulted.

  • Details matter. Even seemingly minor ones such as punctuation.
  • Your bibliography should start on a new page at the end of your essay.
  • There is no full stop at the end of each entry.
  • The bibliography lists sources in alphabetical order by author’s surname. 
  • Be consistent throughout. 
Example: A critical edition of a primary work

Wordsworth, William and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lyrical Ballads, 2nd edn, ed. by R. L. Brett and A. R. Jones (London: Routledge, 1991)

Example: a single-authored (or co-authored) book

Turner, Marion, Chaucerian Conflict: Languages of Antagonism in Late Fourteenth-Century London (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2007) 

Example: An essay or chapter in an edited collection / book

Ferguson, Frances, ‘Malthus, Godwin, Wordsworth, and the Spirit of Solitude’, in Literature and the Body: Essays on Populations and Persons, ed. by Elaine Scarry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), pp. 106-24

Example: an article in a journal

Christensen, Jerome, ‘The Romantic Movement at the End of History’, Critical Enquiry, 20 (1994), 452-76

Example: An article in a scholarly journal published exclusively online

Franey, Laura, 'Terror and Liberation on the Railway in Women's Short Stories of 1894', NineteenthCentury Gender Studies, 14.1 (2018), <https://www.ncgsjournal.com/issue141/franey.htm> [accessed 10 September 2018]

Example: An article accessed on a website

Flood, Alison, ‘Cloud Atlas “astonishingly different” in US and UK editions, study finds’, The Guardian (2016), <http://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/aug/10/cloud-atlas-astonishinglydifferent-in-us-and-uk-editions-study-finds> [accessed 23 August 2018]

Example: a film / movie

Metropolis, dir. By Fritz Lang (UFA, 1927) 

Footnote/Endnote Style

(Please note: this information is taken from the Writing and Referencing in InterPol handbook which can be found here)

Books
 
Footnote/ endnote: Waltz, K. Theory of International Politics (London, McGraw Hill, 1979), p. 117.
 
Bibliography: Waltz, K. Theory of International Politics (London, McGraw Hill, 1979).

Chapters in edited volumes
 
Footnote/ endnote:  Grieco, J. 'Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation', in Neorealism and Neoliberalism: the Contemporary Debate, edited by David Baldwin (New York, Columbia University Press, 1993), p. 126.
 
Bibliography: Grieco, J. 'Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation', in Neorealism and Neoliberalism: the Contemporary Debate, edited by David Baldwin (New York, Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. 116-42.
 

Journal articles
 
Footnote/ endnote: Wendt, A. 'The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory', International Organization, 41 (1987) p. 49.
 
Bibliography: Wendt, A. 'The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory', International Organization, 41 (1987) pp. 35-70.
 
 

Referencing a document or publication produced by a Government, International Organisation, Corporation or NGO
 
Footnote/ endnote House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, ‘Cultural Diplomacy’ (London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1987), p. 7.
 
Bibliography: House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, ‘Cultural Diplomacy’ (London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1987)
 
 

Referencing an article in a newspaper or magazine
 
Footnote/ endnote: Freedland, J. ‘For dictators, Britain does red carpet or carpet-bombing’. The Guardian (London), 1 March 2011, p. 17.
 
Bibliography: Freedland, J. ‘For dictators, Britain does red carpet or carpet-bombing’. The Guardian (London), 1 March 2011.
 
If you have accessed the article online, make this clear in the footnote/ endnote and in the bibliography: 
 
Freedland, J. ‘For dictators, Britain does red carpet or carpet-bombing’. The Guardian, 1 March 2011.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/mar/01/dictators-britain-armstrade-hypocrisy [Accessed 24 October 2011].
 
 

Referencing a television or radio broadcast
 
Same for footnote/ endnote and bibliography:
 
Panorama, BBC2, 30 January 2011, 20.00

Websites/Blogs/Twitter
 
Same for footnote/ endnote and bibliography:
 
BBC News, North Korea Country Profile. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1131421.stm [Accessed 23 July 2011].
 
Davies, M. ‘IR Theory: Problem-Solving Theory Versus Critical Theory’, E-IR, 19 September 2014 [Blog], Available at: http://www.e-ir.info/2014/09/19/ir-theoryproblem-solving-theory-versus-critical-theory/ [Accessed 30 September 2014].
 
Obama, B. “We have to work together as a global community to tackle this global threat before it is too late.” – President Obama, 23 September 2014 [Twitter]. Available at: https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/514462253605609472 [Accessed 30 September 2014].
 

Referencing material accessed by an e-book reader (e.g. Kindle, etc.)

If page numbers are not available on ebook readers, use the chapters instead for indicating the location of a quoted section
 
For the footnote/ endnote and the bibliography, include the following information:

  • author name and initial  
  • title (in italics) 
  • the type of e-book version you accessed (two examples are the Kindle Edition version and the Adobe Digital Editions version). 
  • year (date of Kindle Edition) 
  • accessed day month year (the date you first accessed the ebook) 
  • the book’s DOI (digital object idenitifer) or where you downloaded the ebook from (if there is no DOI). 

 
For example: 
 
Smith, A, The Wealth of Nations (Kindle version, 2008). Accessed 20 August 2010 from Amazon.com.
 
Smith, A, The Wealth of Nations (Adobe Digital Editions version, 2008). Accessed 20 August 2010, doi:10.1036/007142363X.
 

Secondary Referencing 
 
Secondary referencing means referencing a book or article that you haven’t read yourself but which you have seen quoted in another person’s work.  When using the footnote/ endnote system, follow the following guidelines:
 
Enter a footnote or endnote citing the author you are quoting but make it clear that you have found the reference in another book.
 
For example:
 
Ninkovich, F. The Diplomacy of Ideas (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1981), p. 1, cited in Vaughan, J. Unconquerable Minds. The Failure of American and British Propaganda in the Middle East, 1945-1957 (Houndmills, Palgrave, 2005), p. 2.
 
In the bibliography, you would only enter the book in which you found the reference, in the case of the above example:
 
Vaughan, J. Unconquerable Minds. The Failure of American and British Propaganda in the Middle East, 1945-1957 (Houndmills, Palgrave, 2005).

OSCOLA - Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities

Students of Law should refer to the OSCOLA 4th edition and its Quick Reference guide.  

This page provides examples of commonly cited sources.

This style uses footnote format for the in-text citations.  Full source details are listed bibliography in a slightly different format.

When referencing a printed book in a footnote, follow this order:

  • Author - in same form as in publication*
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition information, publisher, date (in brackets)
  • Page reference

If you are using an eBook, you should normally create a reference in the same way as if you were using the print version.  If it is published online only, you should follow the guidance for referencing websites as far as possible.

Examples: Book (one author)

Footnote citation

[1] Geoffrey Rivlin, First Steps in the Law (7th edn. OUP 2015) 76

[2] Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (first published 1651, Penguin 1985) 268

Bibliography

Hobbes, T. Leviathan (first published 1651, Penguin 1985)

Rivlin, G. First Steps in the Law (7th edn. OUP 2015)

When referencing a book chapter/contributions to edited collections follow this order:

  • Author name
  • Chapter title
  • in + editor(s) of the book
  • title of the book (in italics)
  • Publisher date (in brackets)
  • if pinpointing add page reference of pinpoint after a comma
Example: chapter from a book

In footnote:

Francis Rose, ‘The Evolution of the Species’ in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodger (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (OUP 2006), 54.

In bibliography:

Rose, Francis ‘The Evolution of the Species’ in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodger (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (OUP 2006).

When referencing an article follow this order:

  • authors, first name/initials followed by surname
  • article title 'in single quotation marks'
  • date - [square brackets if this indicates volume], (round brackets if separate volume number)
  • journal title in abbreviated form (check Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations) with no full stops
  • page number of first page of article
  • if pinpointing add page reference of pinpoint after a comma
Example: Journal article

In footnote, with pinpoint:

JAG Griffith, 'The Common Law and the Political Constitution' (2001) 117 LQR 42, 64.

In bibliography:

Griffith, JAG. 'The Common Law and the Political Constitution' (2001) 117 LQR 42

Standard citation of law reports contain the following elements:

For cases before 2001/2002, include:

  • Party names
  • Date - Square brackets to denotes date is essential to locate report
  • Volume number
  • Abbreviation of law report
  • Page reference - first page of report
  • If pinpointing a specific quotation or passage
Examples:

Footnote:

[1] Johnson v Rea [1962] 1 QB 373

[2] Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co [1891] 1 QB 256, 262

Cases after 2001/2002 should contain the following elements:

  • Party names
  • Date
  • Neutral citation
  • Law report citation, including:
    • Date - square brackets if required to find report (i.e. annually repeating instead of consecutive volume numbers)
    • Volume number
    • Abbreviation of law report
    • Page reference - first page of report
    • If pinpointing a specific quotation or passage
Examples:

Footnote:

[1] Dingmar v Dingmar [2006] EWCA Civ 942; [2007] Ch.109 

[2] Callery v Gray [2001] EWCA Civ 1117, [2001] 1 WLR 2112 [42], [45]

In tables of cases:

If using many cases, organise into groups by jurisdication and alphabetise by first significant word in the citation.

For further guidance on citing case law including unreported cases and EU law, see the full OSCOLA Guide, pp.17-22

If all the information needed by the reader is included in your text, you do not need to provide a footnote to the legislation

Example: where no footnote is required

For example, this sentence in an essay would not require a footnote as it clearly indicates the legislation being discussed.

Section 63 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 established powers to remove persons attending or preparing for a rave

However, if you do not indicate in your writing the name of the Act or the relevant section, a footnote is required.

Example: footnote required

In an essay, the following sentence would require a footnote:

Legislation concerning raves has stated that '"music" includes sounds wholly or predominantly characterised by the emission of a succession of repetitive beats.' [1].

Footnotes citing legislation should include:

  • Short title of the Act, capitalising major words
  • Date with no comma between short title and date
  • Relevant sections and subsections as required to pinpoint
Example: primary legislation

Footnote:

[1] Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 s 63 (1)(b)

Table of legislation:

List legislation used in your assignment alphabetically by first significant word in the short title.

When referencing a webpage follow this order:

  • Author (in footnote, first name then surname; in bibliography surname, first name/initials).  If no author, cite organisation/institution responsible as author
  • Title of webpage/article in single quotation marks
  • Title of website, italicised,  and date (if available) in round brackets.
  • URL <in angled brackets>
  • accessed date.
Example: webpage

In footnote:

Sarah Cole, ‘Virtual Friend Fires Employee’ (Naked Law, 1 May 2009) <http://www.nakedlaw.com/2009/05/index.html> accessed 19 November 2009.

In bibliography:

Cole, Sarah, ‘Virtual Friend Fires Employee’ (Naked Law, 1 May 2009) <http://www.nakedlaw.com/2009/05/index.html> accessed 19 November 2009.

Harvard Style

The quiz at the end of this guide is based on the examples given here but there are different versions of Harvard so always use your department’s guidance.

Students of Criminology should refer to and save the Aberystwyth University Harvard Referencing for Criminology Guide which can be found on Blackboard.

Business and Information Studies students can find their Departmental referencing guide on Blackboard. 

Students from the Department of International Politics should refer to the guidelines for the Harvard referencing system in Writing and Referencing in Interpol. 

Education department students can find their departmental referencing guide on Blackboard.

If you are a Theatre Film and Television Studies student, you must follow the Harvard (author-date) referencing style guide as supplied by your department when citing and referencing in your written work.

Use each tab to discover examples of how to correctly acknowledge different sources in your assignments.

When referencing a printed book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

 

Example: Book (one author)

In -text citation

(Affelt, 2019)

Affelt (2019) suggests that ...

Reference list

Affelt, A. (2019). All that's not fit to print. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

 

Example: Book (two authors) 
If the work has two authors, include all names in your citation.

In-text citation

(Pears and Shields, 2013)

According to Pears and Shields (2013)...

Reference list

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013). Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. London: Palgrave.

 

Please note that the following example is drawn from the referencing guidelines for the Department of International Politics. Whilst this example will be helpful to you in completing the quiz, it must be remembered that other departments using the Harvard referencing style may use 'et.al.' differently. When writing your assignments, it is important to adhere to the guidelines outlined in your department's handbooks on referencing.

 

Example: Book (three or more authors)

If a book has three or more authors, only the first author's name should be listed in-text followed by 'et al.', meaning 'and others'. However, all authors should be listed in the reference list in the order they are credited in the original work.

You must place a full stop at the end of al. and italicise: et al. 

In-text citation

(Dym et al. 2009)

This was discussed by Dym et al. (2009)…

Reference list

Dym, C.L., Little, P., Orwin, E.J., and Spjut, R.E. (2009). Engineering design: a project-based introduction. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 

 

Example: Book (no author)

You may come across a book with no recognisable author. When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year.  Use the first few words if the title is too long. 

To be made up of:

  • Title (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in round brackets).
  • Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition).
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (where relevant).

In-text citation:

(Medicine in old age, 1985)

It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved (Medicine in old age, 1985)…

Reference list:

Medicine in old age (1985) 2nd ed. London: British Medical Association.

If the ebook has page numbers and publication details, then use the book format to reference.

Follow this order;

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (if available).

See the Harvard style 'Book' examples on the previous tab.

If you refer to a chapter of a book by a contributor in an edited book, you cite just the contributor, not the editor.

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • In
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • edited by (first name / last name)
  • Page range
  • Place of publication: publisher

 

in-text citation

(Briassoulis, 2004)

Research by Briassoulis (2004) highlighted the fact...

 

Reference list

Briassoulis, H., (2004). 'Crete: endowed by nature, privileged by geography, threatened by tourism?' in Coastal mass tourism: diversification and sustainable development in Southern Europe. Edited by Bill Bramwell, p. 48-62. Clevedon: Channel View.

 

If there is more than one contributing author who wrote the chapter, you must list all authors in the reference list at the end of your work e.g. Jones, A., Jones, B. and Jones, C., (2010) etc...

 

When referencing an article, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the article', (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the journal (in italics - ensure the first letter of each word is a capital except for the linking words)
  • Issue information - volume (issue number)  (all in round brackets - except the volume)
  • Page reference
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi) if available.
 
Example: Online journal article

In -text citation

(Zimerman, 2012)

Zimerman discusses in detail the review of the literature on digital natives (2012) ...

Reference list

Zimerman, M. (2012). 'Digital natives, searching behavior and the library', New Library World, 113(3/4), 174-201. doi: 10.1108/03074801211218552.

When referencing an article found in a print journal, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in round brackets).
  • 'Title of article', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of journal, (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for).
  • Issue information, that is, volume (not in brackets)  and, where applicable, issue number, month or season (all in round brackets).
    • For example: 
      • Just volume number (no issue number):  Animal Science, 33, 44-50.
      • Volume number and issue number:   The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 24 (2), 365-373. 
  • Page reference.

Example: Print journal article

In-text citation

(Reimers and Eftestol, 2012)

Reimers and Eftestol (2012) investigated....

Reference list

Reimers, E., and Eftestol, S. (2012). 'Response behaviors of Svalbard reindeer towards humans and humans disguised as polar bears on Edgeoya'. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 44, 483-489.

A few points to remember when using et al.:

  • Regardless of source type and format (book, e-book, article, conference papers, online newspaper article etc.), useet al.’ if the work has three authors or more.
  • Et al. is the Latin term for 'and others'.
  • Et al. should be italicised when used in a written text.
  • Given that ‘et al.’ is a shortening it is important to remember the full stop at the end of ‘al.’ to indicate that.
  • Include the first author only followed by ‘et al.’ in the in-text citation (First author surname et al. Year of publication)
  • Don't use et al. in the reference list - all the authors' names must be included in your reference list, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. 

Example

In-text citation

Torrington et al. (2014) demonstrated...

(Torrington et al. 2014)

Reference
Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C. (2014). Human resource management. 9th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

When referencing an online image, follow this order:

  • Person responsible for the image. (Surname, followed by initials) OR Corporate Author.

  • Year published. (in brackets)

  • Title/description. (in italics)

  • [format]  (image/photograph etc.)

  • Available at: URL

  • (Accessed Day Month Year). (in brackets)

Example: Online image

In-text citation:

(Rana, 2013)

The image by Rana (2013) depicts...

Reference list:

Rana, S. (2013). Library Levitation. [image] Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/saharranaphotography/13178176575/  [Accessed 23 March 2020].

When referencing an image found in a book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

If the image is taken from another work (e.g. book) it should be treated and cited as part of that book (print).  Reference an image in a book using the book format, adding the page number to the citation.

Example: Print image

In-text citation:

(Campbell et al, 2015)

Campbell et al. (2015) have clearly illustrated how a plant cell functions.

Note: If you were to include this in your essay, the caption and citation below the image would look similar to this:

Figure 7. The functions and flow of genetic information within a plant cell (Campbell et al., 2015, pp. 282-283).

Reference list:

Campbell, N.A., Reece, Jane B., Urry, Lisa A., Cain, Michael L., Wasserman, Steven A., Minorsky, Peter V., Jackson, Robert B. (2014). Biology : a global approach. Tenth edition. Boston: Pearson.

A document found on the web can be a government report or policy documents. When referencing an online document, follow this order:

  • Author (Surname, then initials). 
  • (Year of publication if given).  (in brackets)
  • Title of document (in italics)
  • [Online],
  • Place of publication,
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example: online document

In-text citation:

(Munafò, 2019)

Munafò (2019) states …
 

Reference list:
Munafò, M. (2019).  Scientific Ecosystems and Research Reproducibility. [Online] Royal London, Society of Biology.  Available at: https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/groups-and-committees/asg/asg-membership/animal-science-meetings/animal-science-meeting-2019-report (Accessed: 23 March 2019).

When referencing your own work, use this order:

  •   Name. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  •   Year of submission. (in round brackets)
  •   'Title of work', (in single quotation marks).
  •    Module code: module title (in italics).
  •    Institution
  •    Unpublished essay/assignment

 Example: Student's own work

In-text citation:

(Smith, 2019)

The assignment written looked at water quality (Smith, 2018)  with the environmental impact...

Reference list:

Smith, S. (2019). ‘Water quality in Welsh rivers', MM56340: Business Impacts. Town University. Unpublished essay.

When referencing a blog, use this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated. (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of message', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of website, (in italics).
  • Day/month of posted message
  • [Blog].
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: Blog

In-text citation:

(Marikar, 2018)

Marikar (2018) suggested...

Reference list:

Marikar, S. (2018). ‘The First Family of Memes', The New Yorker, 1 October. [Blog]. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/10/01/the-first-family-of-memes (Accessed: 22 January 2019). 

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (individual author/organisation)
  • Author (Surname, followed by initials) OR organisation
  • (Year that the site was published/last updated). (in brackets)
  • Title of the webpage (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

(Environment Agency, 2019)

The Environment Agency (2019) identifies the ...

Reference list

Environment Agency (2019). Swim healthy. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/swim-healthy-leaflet/swim-healthy (Accessed: 16 January 2020).

 

Example: Web page (no author)

Replace what would be the author with the title. 

  • Title of web page (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

A rewilding project (2019) has been met...

Reference list

Farmers 'misunderstand' Wales rewilding project. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-49666610 (Accessed: 23 September 2019). 

 

Example: Web page (no date)

If you cannot identify the publication date of a web page, cite it using n.d. (no date).

In-text citation

(Allen n.d.)

Reference list

Allen, J. n.d. No Shopping for A Month: What I Learned From My Month in Exile. Available at: https://www.stayathomemum.com.au/my-money/money-saving-tips/no-shopping-for-a-month-what-i-learned-from-my-month-in-exile/ (Accessed: 24 March 2020).

 

If you can't find the information required  - such as author and/or date, you should indicate any missing information clearly in your reference list, using the page title when no author is named and ‘n.d.’ when no date is available.

When referencing an article from an online newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • 'Title of article'. (in single quotation marks)
  • Newspaper title. (in italics)
  • Date published. (day and month)
  • Available at:URL
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: online newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Ough, 2015)

Ough (2015) questions...

Reference list:

Ough, T. (2014). 'It's so easy to focus on what you can't do after a stroke, rather than what you can'. The Times. 31 December. Available at: https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/GYEXJD027471504/TTDA?u=uniaber&sid=TTDA&xid=f84faf80 (Accessed 23 March 2019).

When referencing an article from a print newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year published). (in brackets)
  • 'Article title'. (in single quotation marks).
  • Newspaper, (in italics)
  • Page(s).

Example: print newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Browne, 2010)

Browne (2010) mentions...

Reference list

Browne, R. (2010). 'This brainless patient is no dummy'. Sydney Morning Herald, 21 March, 45.

In-text citation

IBISWorld (2018) noted problems in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

IBISWorld (2018) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed 2 November 2019).

There are many different versions of maps. Look through the following examples and follow the order provided.

Printed map 

Ordnance Survey map

  • Ordnance Survey
  • (Year). (in brackets)
  • Title of map, (in italics)
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Map/sheet number,
  • Scale.
  • Map series if appropriate.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example: 

In text citation:

(Ordnance Survey, 2016)

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (2016). Aberystwyth and Machynlleth. Ed C. 135, 1:50 000. Landranger series. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Online maps

Digimap

  • Map publisher
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title/description of map. (in italics)
  • Scale.
  • Source (Map Product).
  • Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap
  • (Created on date).

Example:

In-text citation

(Ordnance Survey, 2011)

Reference list

Ordnance Survey, (2011). Aberystwyth University: Gogerddan Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap. [online] Available at: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/  (Accessed 31 August 2011).

Google Earth Maps

  • Google Earth version (if applicable),
  • (Year data released). (in brackets)
  • Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. (in italics)
  • Data set (if applicable).
  • [online]
  • Available: URL
  • (Accessed date). 

Example:

In-text citation
(Google Earth, 2008)

Reference list

Google Earth 6.0. (2008).  Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D map, Buildings data layer [online] Available at: http://www.google.com/earth/index/html  (Accessed 23 September 2019).

When referencing standards, use this order:

  • Organisation.
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Number:
  • Title of the standard, (in italics)
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher. 

Example: Standards

In-text citation:
(BSI 8001, 2017)

BSI 8001 (2017) says ...

Reference list:
British Standards Institution (2017). BS 8001: Framework for implementing the principles of the circular economy in organizations: Guide, London: British Standards Institution. 

Note: if you find the standards online, add the following after the title:

  • [Online],
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

For example:

British Standards Institution (2005) BS EN ISO 17707: Footwear. Test Methods for Outsoles. Flex Resistance, British Standards, [Online]. Available at https://bsol-bsigroup-com. libezproxy.open.ac.uk/en/Bsol-ItemDetail-Page/?pid=000000000030105824 (Accessed 10 May 2017).

When referencing conference papers, follow this order:

Print

  • Author. (Surname, and then initials)
  • (year of publication). (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’,
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • Page numbers.

Example

In-text citation:
(Jones, 1994)

Jones (1994) says ...

Reference list:

Jones, J. (1994). ‘Polymer blends based on compact disc scrap’, Proceedings of the Annual Technical Conference – Society of Plastics Engineers. San Francisco, 1–5 May. Brookfield, CT: Society of Plastics Engineers, 2865–7.

 

Online conference papers

  • Author. (Surname, then initials)
  • (year of publication) (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’ (single quotation marks)
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Publisher
  • [Online].
  • Available at URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example

In-text citation

(Jones, 1999) 

Jones (1999) says ...

Reference list

Jones, D. (1999) ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. [Online] Available at: http://www.bigbusinesses.co.uk/jonesd (Accessed: 15 April 2018).

To reference a thesis or dissertaion, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, then intitials)
  • Year of submission. (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.

If viewed online, add:

  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

Example:

In-text citation:

(Brennan, 1993)

Research by Brennan (1993) suggests that…

Reference list:

Brennan, S.M. (1993) Aspects of Equine Pituitary Abnormality. MSc. Aberystwyth University. 

MLA 8th edition - Modern Language Association

A detailed description of how to use MLA 8th edition has been produced by the School of Art which should be referred to by students in that department.  This guide provides examples of commonly cited sources.

The MLA quiz at the end of this LibGuide is based on the School of Art's stylesheet.

If you are a Modern Languages student, you must follow the referencing guidance supplied by your department when citing and referencing in your written work.

 

In text citations should include the author's name and page reference.  Do not include date or 'pp.'

Examples of In-text citations:
  • If your refer to the author as part of your sentence, include only the page number to which you are referring, e.g:
    • On the subject of identity, Andrews remarks: Landscape in art tells us, or asks us to think about, where we belong(8).
  • If you do not name the author in your sentence, include author name and page number, e.g:
    • The Gothic...is a genre that glorifies transgression(Cohen 883).

Creating the Works Cited list:
When referencing a book follow this order:

  • Authors; surname followed by first name/initials
  • Title, in italics
  • Publisher
  • Year of publication

 

Example: Book, one author:

Works cited list:

Cruise, Colin. Pre-­‐Raphaelite Drawing. Thames and Hudson, 2011.

Heuser, Harry. Immaterial Culture: Literature, Drama and the American Radio Play, 1929-­‐1954. Peter Lang, 2013

Meyrick, Robert. John Elwyn. Ashgate, 2000

Book, more than one author:

Martineau, Jane, et al. Shakespeare in Art. Merrell, 2003.

Meyrick, Robert, and Harry Heuser. The Prints of Stanley Anderson RA. Royal Academy of Arts, 2015

In text citations follow same pattern as physical book should include the author's name and page reference.  Do not include date or 'pp.'

Creating the Works Cited list:
When referencing an ebook follow this order:

  • Authors; surname followed by first name/initials
  • Title, in italics
  • Publisher
  • Year of publication
  • DOI (if available), otherwise URL or permalink
  • Date Accessed.
Example: eBook, one author:

Works cited list:

Harvey, John. Image of the Invisible : the Visualization of Religion in the Welsh Nonconformist Tradition. University of Wales Press, 1999.http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=27384&site=ehost-live. Accessed 30 April 2020. 

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. 
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Editor of book (in format 'edited by...'). 
  • Date of publication
  • Page reference
Example: Chapter from a book

In text-citation:

(Harvey 55)

(Heuser 29)

Works cited list:

Harvey, John. “The Ghost in the Machine: Spirit and Technology.” Ashgate Research Companion to Paranormal Cultures, edited by Olu Jenzen and Sally R. Munt, Routledge, 2013, pp. 51-64.

Heuser, Harry. “‘Please don’t whip me this time’: The Passions of George Powell of NantEos.” Queer Wales, edited by Huw Osborne, U of Wales P, 2016, pp. 45-64.

Note: Provide the entire page range for the essay/article. In your essay, state only the page(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase was derived. While the author of the essay is mentioned first, the editors of the book in which the essay appears are named after the title of the book.

When referencing a journal article, the entry in the works cited should include:

  • Author(s).
  • "Title of Article." 
  • TItle of journal (in italics)
  • Volume,
  • Issue,
  • Year,
  • pages.

Example: journal article (print)

Heuser, Harry. “Bigotry and Virtue: George Powell and the Question of Legacy.” New Welsh Reader, no. 110, Winter 2015, pp. 18-29.

 If you used an online database instead of a physical library such as Hugh Owen to retrieve the source, identify the database, URL/DOI/permalink and state the access date (see example below). The access date must be the day on which you retrieved the article.

Example: journal article (electronically accessed)

Ward, Maryanne C. “A Painting of the Unspeakable: Henry Fuseli’s The Nightmare and the Creation of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.” Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association, vol. 33, no. 1, 2000, pp. 20-31. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/ stable/1315115. Accessed 30 Sept. 2016.

 

References to art works in your works cited list should include:

  • Artist's name
  • Title of artwork (In italics)
  • Medium
  • Date
  • location of artwork (in collection or exhibition.  If in a temporary exhibition, note exhibition title in italics and exhibition dates. See examples below).

Examples:

Croft, Paul. Minokami Idol. Lithograph on hot pressed rag paper, 1993, School of Art Gallery and Museum, Aberystwyth University.

Taeuber-Arp, Sophie. Tête Dada. Painted wood with glass beads on wire, 1920, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Whall, Miranda. Untitled. (Birds on my Head #2). German etch on watercolour paper, 2011, Shifting Subjects: Contemporary Women Telling the Self through the Visual Arts, Abbey Walk Gallery, Grimsby, 2 Sept.-31 Oct. 2015.

Note: The medium may be omitted in the Works Cited entry if it is mentioned in the essay or stated in a caption for a reproduction of the object in question. When a work of art/object of visual culture is discussed in an essay, the medium should be identified. 

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (no named author)
  • Title of web page "in speech marks"
  • Website/publication
  • URL
  • Access date

In text citation:

("Landscape Painting in Chinese Art.")

Works cited list:

“Landscape Painting in Chinese Art.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/clpg/hd_clpg.htm. Accessed 20 Sept. 2016.