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Referencing & Plagiarism Awareness: 8. Referencing Examples

Referencing Style Examples

 

Aberystwyth University does not promote the use of a universal referencing style as some styles are better suited to a particular subject discipline than others. Individual Departments will therefore have a preferred referencing style.

Select the relevant examples below for your Departmental referencing style.  

 

Top Tips:
  • Check your module handbook for further advice on referencing.
  • Decide whether to create your references manually or to use a reference management tool.
  • If you need any help or guidance contact your librarian at: librarians@aber.ac.uk
 
Further Tips:
  • Look at the marking scheme for your assignment - how many marks can you gain for your reference list and what are the criteria you need to meet?
  • Ensure you have allowed enough time in your assignment planning for the reading and the referencing.
  • Read widely: start with the Aspire reading list in your Blackboard module and develop your subject searching skills during your course.
  • Organise and save your references while you are researching for your essay.

Art - MLA 8th edition (Modern Language Association)

A detailed description of how to use MLA 8th edition has been produced by the School of Art which should be referred to by students in that department.  This guide provides examples of commonly cited sources.

The MLA quiz at the end of this LibGuide is based on the School of Art's stylesheet.

 

In text citations should include the author's name and page reference.  Do not include date or 'pp.'

Examples of In-text citations:
  • If your refer to the author as part of your sentence, include only the page number to which you are referring, e.g:
    • On the subject of identity, Andrews remarks: Landscape in art tells us, or asks us to think about, where we belong(8).
  • If you do not name the author in your sentence, include author name and page number, e.g:
    • The Gothic...is a genre that glorifies transgression(Cohen 883).

Creating the Works Cited list:
When referencing a book follow this order:

  • Authors; surname followed by first name/initials
  • Title, in italics
  • Publisher
  • Year of publication

 

Example: Book, one author:

Works cited list:

Cruise, Colin. Pre-­‐Raphaelite Drawing. Thames and Hudson, 2011.

Heuser, Harry. Immaterial Culture: Literature, Drama and the American Radio Play, 1929-­‐1954. Peter Lang, 2013

Meyrick, Robert. John Elwyn. Ashgate, 2000

Book, more than one author:

Martineau, Jane, et al. Shakespeare in Art. Merrell, 2003.

Meyrick, Robert, and Harry Heuser. The Prints of Stanley Anderson RA. Royal Academy of Arts, 2015

In text citations follow same pattern as physical book should include the author's name and page reference.  Do not include date or 'pp.'

Creating the Works Cited list:
When referencing an ebook follow this order:

  • Authors; surname followed by first name/initials
  • Title, in italics
  • Publisher
  • Year of publication
  • DOI (if available), otherwise URL or permalink
  • Date Accessed.
Example: eBook, one author:

Works cited list:

Harvey, John. Image of the Invisible : the Visualization of Religion in the Welsh Nonconformist Tradition. University of Wales Press, 1999.http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=27384&site=ehost-live. Accessed 30 April 2020. 

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. 
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Editor of book (in format 'edited by...'). 
  • Date of publication
  • Page reference
Example: Chapter from a book

In text-citation:

(Harvey 55)

(Heuser 29)

Works cited list:

Harvey, John. “The Ghost in the Machine: Spirit and Technology.” Ashgate Research Companion to Paranormal Cultures, edited by Olu Jenzen and Sally R. Munt, Routledge, 2013, pp. 51-64.

Heuser, Harry. “‘Please don’t whip me this time’: The Passions of George Powell of NantEos.” Queer Wales, edited by Huw Osborne, U of Wales P, 2016, pp. 45-64.

Note: Provide the entire page range for the essay/article. In your essay, state only the page(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase was derived. While the author of the essay is mentioned first, the editors of the book in which the essay appears are named after the title of the book.

When referencing a journal article, the entry in the works cited should include:

  • Author(s).
  • "Title of Article." 
  • TItle of journal (in italics)
  • Volume,
  • Issue,
  • Year,
  • pages.

Example: journal article (print)

Heuser, Harry. “Bigotry and Virtue: George Powell and the Question of Legacy.” New Welsh Reader, no. 110, Winter 2015, pp. 18-29.

 If you used an online database instead of a physical library such as Hugh Owen to retrieve the source, identify the database, URL/DOI/permalink and state the access date (see example below). The access date must be the day on which you retrieved the article.

Example: journal article (electronically accessed)

Ward, Maryanne C. “A Painting of the Unspeakable: Henry Fuseli’s The Nightmare and the Creation of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.” Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association, vol. 33, no. 1, 2000, pp. 20-31. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/ stable/1315115. Accessed 30 Sept. 2016.

 

References to art works in your works cited list should include:

  • Artist's name
  • Title of artwork (In italics)
  • Medium
  • Date
  • location of artwork (in collection or exhibition.  If in a temporary exhibition, note exhibition title in italics and exhibition dates. See examples below).

Examples:

Croft, Paul. Minokami Idol. Lithograph on hot pressed rag paper, 1993, School of Art Gallery and Museum, Aberystwyth University.

Taeuber-Arp, Sophie. Tête Dada. Painted wood with glass beads on wire, 1920, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Whall, Miranda. Untitled. (Birds on my Head #2). German etch on watercolour paper, 2011, Shifting Subjects: Contemporary Women Telling the Self through the Visual Arts, Abbey Walk Gallery, Grimsby, 2 Sept.-31 Oct. 2015.

Note: The medium may be omitted in the Works Cited entry if it is mentioned in the essay or stated in a caption for a reproduction of the object in question. When a work of art/object of visual culture is discussed in an essay, the medium should be identified. 

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (no named author)
  • Title of web page "in speech marks"
  • Website/publication
  • URL
  • Access date

In text citation:

("Landscape Painting in Chinese Art.")

Works cited list:

“Landscape Painting in Chinese Art.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/clpg/hd_clpg.htm. Accessed 20 Sept. 2016.

Business - Harvard Style

The quiz at the end of this guide is based on the examples given here but there are different versions of Harvard so always use your department’s guidance.

Business students can find their Departmental referencing guide on Blackboard. 

Use each tab to discover examples of how to correctly acknowledge different sources in your assignments.

When referencing a printed book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

 

Example: Book (one author)

In -text citation

(Affelt, 2019)

Affelt (2019) suggests that ...

If a direct quote:

If a direct quotation (include the page number):

'It is unlikely that those sharing fake news content are carefully considering their audience' (Affellt, 2019, p. 35).

Reference list

Affelt, A. (2019). All that's not fit to print. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

 

Example: Book (two authors) 
If the work has two authors, include all names in your citation.

In-text citation

(Pears and Shields, 2013)

According to Pears and Shields (2013)...

Reference list

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013). Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. London: Palgrave.

 

When writing your assignments, it is important to adhere to the guidelines outlined in your department's handbooks on referencing.

 

Example: Book (three or more authors)

If a book has three or more authors, only the first author's name should be listed in-text followed by 'et al.', meaning 'and others'. However, all authors should be listed in the reference list in the order they are credited in the original work.

You must place a full stop at the end of al. and italicise: et al. 

In-text citation

(Dym et al. 2009)

This was discussed by Dym et al. (2009)…

Reference list

Dym, C.L., Little, P., Orwin, E.J., and Spjut, R.E. (2009). Engineering design: a project-based introduction. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 

 

Example: Book (no author)

You may come across a book with no recognisable author. When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year.  Use the first few words if the title is too long. 

To be made up of:

  • Title (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in round brackets).
  • Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition).
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (where relevant).

In-text citation:

(Medicine in old age, 1985)

It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved (Medicine in old age, 1985)…

Reference list:

Medicine in old age (1985) 2nd ed. London: British Medical Association.

If the ebook has page numbers and publication details, then use the book format to reference.

Follow this order;

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (if available).

See the Harvard style 'Book (print)' examples on the previous tab.

If you refer to a chapter of a book by a contributor in an edited book, you cite just the contributor, not the editor.

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • In
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Edited by (first name, last name)
  • Page range
  • Place of publication: publisher

 

in-text citation

(Briassoulis, 2004)

Research by Briassoulis (2004) highlighted the fact...

 

Reference list

Briassoulis, H., (2004). 'Crete: endowed by nature, privileged by geography, threatened by tourism?' in Coastal mass tourism: diversification and sustainable development in Southern Europe. Edited by Bill Bramwell, pp. 48-62. Clevedon: Channel View.

 

If there is more than one contributing author who wrote the chapter, you must list all authors in the reference list at the end of your work e.g. Jones, A., Jones, B. and Jones, C., (2010) etc...

 

When referencing an article found in a print journal, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)  Tip: If multiple authors - follow the guidance on the Book (print) tab.
  • (Year of publication). (in round brackets).
  • 'Title of article', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of journal, (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for).
  • Issue information, that is, volume (not in brackets)  and, where applicable, issue number, month or season (all in round brackets).
    • For example: 
      • Just volume number (no issue number):  Innovation, 19, pp. 18-27. 
      • Volume number and issue number:   International Information and Library Review, 32 (1), pp. 39-62.
  • Page reference.

Example: Print journal article

In-text citation

(Marcella, 2001)

Marcella (2001) investigated....

If a direct quote:

'A significant proportion of respondents stated that they had used electronic networks in accessing European information in the past' (Marcella, 2001, p.509).

Reference list

Marcella, R. (2001). ’The need for European Union information amongst women in the United Kingdom: results of a survey', Journal of Documentation, 57 (4) pp. 492-518.

When referencing an article, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the article', (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the journal (in italics - ensure the first letter of each word is a capital except for the linking words)
  • Issue information - volume (issue number)  (all in round brackets - except the volume)
  • Page reference
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi) if available.
 
Example: Online journal article

In -text citation

(Zimerman, 2012)

Zimerman discusses in detail the review of the literature on digital natives (2012) ...

Reference list

Zimerman, M. (2012). 'Digital natives, searching behavior and the library', New Library World, 113(3/4), pp. 174-201. doi: 10.1108/03074801211218552.

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (individual author/organisation)
  • Author (Surname, followed by initials) OR organisation
  • (Year that the site was published/last updated). (in brackets)
  • Title of the webpage (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

(Environment Agency, 2019)

The Environment Agency (2019) identifies the ...

Reference list

Environment Agency (2019). Swim healthy. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/swim-healthy-leaflet/swim-healthy (Accessed: 16 January 2020).

 

Example: Web page (no author)

Replace what would be the author with the title. 

  • Title of web page (in italics)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

A rewilding project (Farmers 'misunderstand' Wales rewilding project, 2019) has been met...

Reference list

Farmers 'misunderstand' Wales rewilding project (2019). Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-49666610 (Accessed: 23 September 2019). 

 

Example: Web page (no date)

If you cannot identify the publication date of a web page, cite it using n.d. (no date).

In-text citation

(Allen n.d.)

Reference list

Allen, J. n.d. No Shopping for A Month: What I Learned From My Month in Exile. Available at: https://www.stayathomemum.com.au/my-money/money-saving-tips/no-shopping-for-a-month-what-i-learned-from-my-month-in-exile/ (Accessed: 24 March 2020).

 

If you can't find the information required  - such as author and/or date, you should indicate any missing information clearly in your reference list, using the page title when no author is named and ‘n.d.’ when no date is available.

When referencing a blog, use this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated. (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of message', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of website, (in italics).
  • Day/month of posted message
  • [Blog].
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: Blog

In-text citation:

(Marikar, 2018)

Marikar (2018) suggested...

Reference list:

Marikar, S. (2018). ‘The First Family of Memes', The New Yorker, 1 October. [Blog]. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/10/01/the-first-family-of-memes (Accessed: 22 January 2019). 

To reference a thesis or dissertaion, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, then intitials)
  • Year of submission. (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.

If viewed online, add:

  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

Example:

In-text citation:

(Brennan, 1993)

Research by Brennan (1993) suggests that…

Reference list:

Brennan, S.M. (1993) Aspects of Equine Pituitary Abnormality. MSc. Aberystwyth University. 

When referencing conference papers, follow this order:

Print

  • Author. (Surname, and then initials)
  • (year of publication). (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’,
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • Page numbers.

Example

In-text citation:
(Jones, 1994)

Jones (1994) says ...

Reference list:

Jones, J. (1994). ‘Polymer blends based on compact disc scrap’, Proceedings of the Annual Technical Conference – Society of Plastics Engineers. San Francisco, 1–5 May. Brookfield, CT: Society of Plastics Engineers, 2865–7.

 

Online conference papers

  • Author. (Surname, then initials)
  • (year of publication) (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’ (single quotation marks)
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Publisher
  • [Online].
  • Available at URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example

In-text citation

(Jones, 1999) 

Jones (1999) says ...

Reference list

Jones, D. (1999) ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. [Online] Available at: http://www.bigbusinesses.co.uk/jonesd (Accessed: 15 April 2018).

When referencing standards, use this order:

  • Organisation.
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Number:
  • Title of the standard, (in italics)
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher. 

Example: Standards

In-text citation:
(BSI 8001, 2017)

BSI 8001 (2017) says ...

Reference list:
British Standards Institution (2017). BS 8001: Framework for implementing the principles of the circular economy in organizations: Guide, London: British Standards Institution. 

Note: if you find the standards online, add the following after the title:

  • [Online],
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

For example:

British Standards Institution (2005) BS EN ISO 17707: Footwear. Test Methods for Outsoles. Flex Resistance, British Standards, [Online]. Available at https://bsol-bsigroup-com. libezproxy.open.ac.uk/en/Bsol-ItemDetail-Page/?pid=000000000030105824 (Accessed 10 May 2017).

There are many different versions of maps. Look through the following examples and follow the order provided.

Printed map 

Ordnance Survey map

  • Ordnance Survey
  • (Year). (in brackets)
  • Title of map, (in italics)
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Map/sheet number,
  • Scale.
  • Map series if appropriate.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example: 

In text citation:

(Ordnance Survey, 2016)

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (2016). Aberystwyth and Machynlleth. Ed C. 135, 1:50 000. Landranger series. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Online maps

Digimap

  • Map publisher
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title/description of map. (in italics)
  • Scale.
  • Source (Map Product).
  • Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap
  • (Created on date).

Example:

In-text citation

(Ordnance Survey, 2011)

Reference list

Ordnance Survey, (2011). Aberystwyth University: Gogerddan Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap. [online] Available at: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/  (Accessed 31 August 2011).

Google Earth Maps

  • Google Earth version (if applicable),
  • (Year data released). (in brackets)
  • Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. (in italics)
  • Data set (if applicable).
  • [online]
  • Available: URL
  • (Accessed date). 

Example:

In-text citation
(Google Earth, 2008)

Reference list

Google Earth 6.0. (2008).  Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D map, Buildings data layer [online] Available at: http://www.google.com/earth/index/html  (Accessed 23 September 2019).

Refinitiv Workspace is a financial database.

Follow this order:

  • Publishing organisation
  • Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets) this is often the current year
  • Title of extract (in single quotation marks) or use the heading at the top of the screen that indicates what the data is or alternatively write your search of how you obtained the data eg. 'Search results for...'
  • Available at: URL  (if available)
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text citation

Refinitiv (2023) noted an increase in 50% in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

Refinitiv (2023) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed: 2 November 2022).

 

In-text citation

IBISWorld (2018) noted problems in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

IBISWorld (2018) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed 2 November 2019).

When referencing an article from a print newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year published). (in brackets)
  • 'Article title'. (in single quotation marks).
  • Newspaper, (in italics)
  • Page(s).

Example: print newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Browne, 2010)

Browne (2010) mentions...

Reference list

Browne, R. (2010). 'This brainless patient is no dummy'. Sydney Morning Herald, 21 March, p. 45.

When referencing an article from an online newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • 'Title of article'. (in single quotation marks)
  • Newspaper title. (in italics)
  • Date published. (day and month)
  • Available at:URL
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: online newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Ough, 2015)

Ough (2015) questions...

Reference list:

Ough, T. (2014). 'It's so easy to focus on what you can't do after a stroke, rather than what you can'. The Times. 31 December. Available at: https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/GYEXJD027471504/TTDA?u=uniaber&sid=TTDA&xid=f84faf80 (Accessed 23 March 2019).

When referencing your own work, use this order:

  •   Name. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  •   Year of submission. (in round brackets)
  •   'Title of work', (in single quotation marks).
  •    Module code: module title (in italics).
  •    Institution
  •    Unpublished essay/assignment

 Example: Student's own work

In-text citation:

(Smith, 2019)

The assignment written looked at water quality (Smith, 2018)  with the environmental impact...

Reference list:

Smith, S. (2019). ‘Water quality in Welsh rivers', MM56340: Business Impacts. Town University. Unpublished essay.

A document found on the web can be a government report or policy documents. When referencing an online document, follow this order:

  • Author (Surname, then initials). 
  • (Year of publication if given).  (in brackets)
  • Title of document (in italics)
  • [Online],
  • Place of publication,
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example: online document

In-text citation:

(Munafò, 2019)

Munafò (2019) states …
 

Reference list:
Munafò, M. (2019).  Scientific Ecosystems and Research Reproducibility. [Online] Royal London, Society of Biology.  Available at: https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/groups-and-committees/asg/asg-membership/animal-science-meetings/animal-science-meeting-2019-report (Accessed: 23 March 2019).

When referencing an image found in a book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

If the image is taken from another work (e.g. book) it should be treated and cited as part of that book (print).  Reference an image in a book using the book format, adding the page number to the citation.

Example: Print image

In-text citation:

(Campbell et al, 2015)

Campbell et al. (2015) have clearly illustrated how a plant cell functions.

Note: If you were to include this in your essay, the caption and citation below the image would look similar to this:

Figure 7. The functions and flow of genetic information within a plant cell (Campbell et al., 2015, pp. 282-283).

Reference list:

Campbell, N.A., Reece, Jane B., Urry, Lisa A., Cain, Michael L., Wasserman, Steven A., Minorsky, Peter V., Jackson, Robert B. (2014). Biology : a global approach. Tenth edition. Boston: Pearson.

When referencing an online image, follow this order:

  • Person responsible for the image. (Surname, followed by initials) OR Corporate Author.

  • Year published. (in brackets)

  • Title/description. (in italics)

  • [format]  (image/photograph etc.)

  • Available at: URL

  • (Accessed Day Month Year). (in brackets)

Example: Online image

In-text citation:

(Rana, 2013)

The image by Rana (2013) depicts...

Reference list:

Rana, S. (2013). Library Levitation. [image] Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/saharranaphotography/13178176575/  [Accessed 23 March 2020].

Follow this order;

  • Author of post
  • Year posted (in round brackets)
  • Title or description of post (in single quotation marks)
  • [Name of platform]
  • Day/month posted
  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example: Twitter

In-text citation:

(Aberystwyth University, 2023)

Aberystwyth University (2023) are ...

Reference list:

Aberystwyth University (2023) 'Scientists are in Switzerland investigating the increase in rock cover.' [Twitter] 6 July. Available at: https://twitter.com/AberUni/status/1676496158691082248 (Accessed: 6 July 2023).

How to cite an AI:

A prompt is the imput given to the AI in the form of text, for example it is what the user types in their 'chat box' to provide imputs to ChatGPT.  If the input provided by the user is not text, it should be listed and explained in the tool use statement.

 

In-text citation

(Author, date of access) eg: (ChatGPT, 2023)

 

End Reference List:

  • Author (AI programme inc. version)
  • Date (in brackets)
  • AI provider company (in italics)
  • Web address
  • Date of last access.

For example:

ChatGPT v3 (2023) Open AI. Available online at https://chat.openai.com/. Accessed 24/08/23.

 

Prompts used within AI to generate responses should not be detailed in the end reference list but should be entered in the tool-use statement, which MUST then be an appendix to ALL assignments.

 

A few points to remember when using et al.:

  • Regardless of source type and format (book, e-book, article, conference papers, online newspaper article etc.), useet al.’ if the work has three authors or more.
  • Et al. is the Latin term for 'and others'.
  • Et al. should be italicised when used in a written text.
  • Given that ‘et al.’ is a shortening it is important to remember the full stop at the end of ‘al.’ to indicate that.
  • Include the surname of the first author only followed by ‘et al.’ in the in-text citation surrounded by brackets 
    • (First author surname et al., + year of publication: + p. with the page number where the quote can be found)
    • (Huws et al., 2013, p.14)
  • Don't use et al. in the reference list - all the authors' names must be included in your reference list, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. 

Example

In-text citation

Torrington et al. (2014) demonstrated...

(Torrington et al. 2014)

Quote:

" Aside from storage, the rumen is also a fermentation vat." (Huws et al., 2013, p.14).

 

Reference
Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C. (2014). Human resource management. 9th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

Computer Science - Any referencing style can be used - consistency is the key

Full information on referencing in the Department of Computer Science can be found here.

Criminology - Harvard Style

The quiz at the end of this guide is based on the examples given here but there are different versions of Harvard so always use your department’s guidance.

Students of Criminology should refer to and save the Aberystwyth University Harvard Referencing for Criminology Guide which can be found on Blackboard.

Use each tab to discover examples of how to correctly acknowledge different sources in your assignments.

Book:

  • Author (surname followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Series and volume number (where relevant)

Example
In-text citation

(Brooks, 2012)

Reference list entry
Brooks, T. (2012) Punishment. London: Routledge.

Journal article:

  • Author (surname followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks/inverted commas)
  • Title of journal (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
  • Issue information - volume (unbracketed) and, where applicable, issue number (in round brackets)
  • Page reference (if available)

For online only journals, then:

  • Available at: URL (if required) (Accessed online at: date) OR doi (if available)

In-text citation

(Antonaccio and Tittle, 2007)

Reference list entry:
Antonaccio, O. and Tittle, C. R. (2007)'A Cross-National Test of Bonger’s Theory of Criminality and Economic Conditions', Criminology, Vol. 45(4): 925-958.

(NB: the ‘and’ between the names could be replaced by ‘&’; the colon (:) after the issue number could be replaced by ‘pp.’. This holds for all reference presentations, but be consistent).

Note that the citation is the chapter author not the book editors.

  • Chapter author (surname followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of chapter (in inverted commas)
  • ‘in’
  • Author/editor of whole book
  • Title of book (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Page reference

 

Example
In-text citation

(Johnstone and Ness, 2007)

Reference list entry
Johnstone, G. and Van Ness, D. (2007) ‘The meaning of restorative justice. In G. Johnstone and D. Van Ness (eds) Handbook of Restorative Justice. Cullompton: Willan Publishing, pp.1- 23.

Legislation

  • Title of Act including year and chapter number (in italics)
  • Country/jurisdiction (only if referencing more than one country's legislation)
  • Available online at URL
  • [Accessed on date]

Example
In-text citation
(Crime and Disorder Act 1998)
Reference list entry
Crime and Disorder Act 1998, c. 5. Available online at www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/37/section/5 [Accessed on 22 July, 2019].

 

Webpage with author

  • Author (surname followed by initials)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)
  • Title of web page (in italics)
  • Available online at URL
  • [Accessed on date]

Example citation:

(Bateman and Hazel, 2014)

Example reference list entry:

Bateman T. and Hazel N. (2014) Youth Justice Timeline. Available online at www.beyondyouthcustody.net/wp-content/uploads/youth-justice-timeline.pdf [Accessed on 22 July, 2019].

Webpage with no author

  • Title of the web page (in italics)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)
  • Available online at URL
  • [Accessed on date]

Example citation:

(Protecting children from trafficking and modern slavery, 2019)

Example reference list entry

Protecting children from trafficking and modern slavery (2019) Available online at https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/child-abuse-and-neglect/child-trafficking-and-modern-slavery/ (Accessed on 22 July, 2019).

Conference paper

  • Author of paper (surname followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of paper (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)
  • Location and date of conference
  • Place of publication: publisher (or URL as per online sources)
  • Page references for the paper (if available)

Example citation

(McCold, 2000)

Example reference list entry

McCold, P. (2000) ‘Overview of Mediation, Conferencing and Circles’. Paper Tenth United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and the Treatment of Offenders, Vienna, April 10-17. Available online at https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/432663/files/A_CONF.187_15-EN.pdf (last accessed 22 July, 2019).

Research report

  • Author of report (surname followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (round brackets)
  • Title of report (italics)
  • Either: place of publication: publisher (hard copy) or URL as per online sources (online)

Example citation

(Liddle, et al. 2016)

Example reference list entry

Liddle, M., Boswell, G., Wright, S. and Francis, V. with Perry, R. (2016) Trauma and Young Offenders: A Review of the Research and Practice Literature. Available online at www.beyondyouthcustody.net/wp-content/uploads/Trauma-and-young-offenders-a-review-of-the-research-and-practice-literature.pdf [Accessed 23 July, 2019].

Named author:

  • Author of report (surname followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (round brackets)
  • Title of report (in italics)
  • Organisation name
  • Either: place of publication: publisher (hard copy) or URL as per online sources (online)

Examples:

In-text citation

(Hollis, 2017)

Reference list entry:

Hollis V. (2017) The profile of the children and young people accessing an NSPCC service for harmful sexual behaviour. NSPCC. Available online at https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/media/1088/the-profile-of-the-children-and-young-people-accessing-an-nspcc-service-for-harmful-sexual-behaviour-summary-report-regular-text-version.pdf [Accessed 23 July, 2019].

No named author:

  • Organisation name
  • Year of publication (round brackets)
  • Title of report (italics)
  • Either: place of publication: publisher (hard copy) or URL as per online sources (online)

Examples:

In-text citation

(Prison Reform Trust, 2018)

Reference list entry:

Prison Reform Trust (2018) Prison: the facts. Bromley Briefings Summer 2018. Available online at www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/Portals/0/Documents/Bromley%20Briefings/Summer%202018%20factfile.pdf [Accessed 23 July, 2019].

 

Newspaper article (with identified author/byline)

  • Author/byline
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of newspaper (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
  • Edition if required (in round brackets)
  • Day and month
  • Page reference (if available)
  • Available online at URL (if required) [Accessed on date] OR doi (if available)

Examples:

In-text citation

(Spillet, 2019)

Reference list entry

Spillett R. (2019) ‘Lawless Britain: Shocking figures reveal there are now two killings a DAY on UK streets as number of homicides soars to highest level for TEN YEARS... and fewer criminals are being caught!’ Daily Mail, 25 April. Available online at www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6958493/Number-killings-Britains-streets-hits-10-year-high-amid-knife-epidemic.html (Accessed on 22 July, 2019).

 

Newspaper article (no identified author/byline)

  • Title of newspaper (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of article (in single quotation marks)
  • Day and month
  • Page reference or web reference if online

Examples:

In-text citation

(The Guardian, 2019) (page number after year, if available)

Reference list entry

The Guardian (2019) ‘The Guardian view on policing youth violence: knives are a public health issue’, 15 July. Available online at www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jul/15/the-guardian-view-on-policing-youth-violence-knives-are-a-public-health-issue (Accessed on 22 July, 2019).

  • Name of organisation or institution
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher (or if accessed online - Available online at URL [Accessed on date]

Examples

In text citation

(United Nations, 1985)

Reference list entry

United Nations (1985) Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (Beijing Rules). Available online at www.ohchr.org/Documents/ProfessionalInterest/beijingrules.pdf [Accessed on 22 July, 2019].

  • Name of person posting video
  • Year video posted (in round brackets)
  • Title of film or programme (in italics)
  • Available online at URL
  • [Accessed on date]

Examples

In text citation

(Cambridge University, 2015)

Reference list entry

Cambridge University (2015) Jogging with Jody – the experts view. Available online at www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_RiP_KI77Q [Accessed on 23 July, 2019].

Education - Harvard Style

The quiz at the end of this guide is based on the examples given here but there are different versions of Harvard so always use your department’s guidance.

Education department students can find their departmental referencing guide on Blackboard.

Use each tab to discover examples of how to correctly acknowledge different sources in your assignments.

When referencing a blog, use this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated. (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of message', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of website, (in italics).
  • Day/month of posted message
  • [Blog].
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: Blog

In-text citation:

(Marikar, 2018)

Marikar (2018) suggested...

Reference list:

Marikar, S. (2018). ‘The First Family of Memes', The New Yorker, 1 October. [Blog]. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/10/01/the-first-family-of-memes (Accessed: 22 January 2019). 

To reference a thesis or dissertaion, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, then intitials)
  • Year of submission. (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.

If viewed online, add:

  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

Example:

In-text citation:

(Brennan, 1993)

Research by Brennan (1993) suggests that…

Reference list:

Brennan, S.M. (1993) Aspects of Equine Pituitary Abnormality. MSc. Aberystwyth University. 

When referencing conference papers, follow this order:

Print

  • Author. (Surname, and then initials)
  • (year of publication). (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’,
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • Page numbers.

Example

In-text citation:
(Jones, 1994)

Jones (1994) says ...

Reference list:

Jones, J. (1994). ‘Polymer blends based on compact disc scrap’, Proceedings of the Annual Technical Conference – Society of Plastics Engineers. San Francisco, 1–5 May. Brookfield, CT: Society of Plastics Engineers, 2865–7.

 

Online conference papers

  • Author. (Surname, then initials)
  • (year of publication) (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’ (single quotation marks)
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Publisher
  • [Online].
  • Available at URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example

In-text citation

(Jones, 1999) 

Jones (1999) says ...

Reference list

Jones, D. (1999) ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. [Online] Available at: http://www.bigbusinesses.co.uk/jonesd (Accessed: 15 April 2018).

When referencing standards, use this order:

  • Organisation.
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Number:
  • Title of the standard, (in italics)
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher. 

Example: Standards

In-text citation:
(BSI 8001, 2017)

BSI 8001 (2017) says ...

Reference list:
British Standards Institution (2017). BS 8001: Framework for implementing the principles of the circular economy in organizations: Guide, London: British Standards Institution. 

Note: if you find the standards online, add the following after the title:

  • [Online],
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

For example:

British Standards Institution (2005) BS EN ISO 17707: Footwear. Test Methods for Outsoles. Flex Resistance, British Standards, [Online]. Available at https://bsol-bsigroup-com. libezproxy.open.ac.uk/en/Bsol-ItemDetail-Page/?pid=000000000030105824 (Accessed 10 May 2017).

There are many different versions of maps. Look through the following examples and follow the order provided.

Printed map 

Ordnance Survey map

  • Ordnance Survey
  • (Year). (in brackets)
  • Title of map, (in italics)
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Map/sheet number,
  • Scale.
  • Map series if appropriate.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example: 

In text citation:

(Ordnance Survey, 2016)

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (2016). Aberystwyth and Machynlleth. Ed C. 135, 1:50 000. Landranger series. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Online maps

Digimap

  • Map publisher
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title/description of map. (in italics)
  • Scale.
  • Source (Map Product).
  • Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap
  • (Created on date).

Example:

In-text citation

(Ordnance Survey, 2011)

Reference list

Ordnance Survey, (2011). Aberystwyth University: Gogerddan Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap. [online] Available at: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/  (Accessed 31 August 2011).

Google Earth Maps

  • Google Earth version (if applicable),
  • (Year data released). (in brackets)
  • Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. (in italics)
  • Data set (if applicable).
  • [online]
  • Available: URL
  • (Accessed date). 

Example:

In-text citation
(Google Earth, 2008)

Reference list

Google Earth 6.0. (2008).  Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D map, Buildings data layer [online] Available at: http://www.google.com/earth/index/html  (Accessed 23 September 2019).

Refinitiv Workspace is a financial database.

Follow this order:

  • Publishing organisation
  • Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets) this is often the current year
  • Title of extract (in single quotation marks) or use the heading at the top of the screen that indicates what the data is or alternatively write your search of how you obtained the data eg. 'Search results for...'
  • Available at: URL  (if available)
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text citation

Refinitiv (2023) noted an increase in 50% in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

Refinitiv (2023) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed: 2 November 2022).

In-text citation

IBISWorld (2018) noted problems in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

IBISWorld (2018) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed 2 November 2019).

When referencing an article from a print newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year published). (in brackets)
  • 'Article title'. (in single quotation marks).
  • Newspaper, (in italics)
  • Page(s).

Example: print newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Browne, 2010)

Browne (2010) mentions...

Reference list

Browne, R. (2010). 'This brainless patient is no dummy'. Sydney Morning Herald, 21 March, 45.

When referencing an article from an online newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • 'Title of article'. (in single quotation marks)
  • Newspaper title. (in italics)
  • Date published. (day and month)
  • Available at:URL
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: online newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Ough, 2015)

Ough (2015) questions...

Reference list:

Ough, T. (2014). 'It's so easy to focus on what you can't do after a stroke, rather than what you can'. The Times. 31 December. Available at: https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/GYEXJD027471504/TTDA?u=uniaber&sid=TTDA&xid=f84faf80 (Accessed 23 March 2019).

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (individual author/organisation)
  • Author (Surname, followed by initials) OR organisation
  • (Year that the site was published/last updated). (in brackets)
  • Title of the webpage (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

(Environment Agency, 2019)

The Environment Agency (2019) identifies the ...

Reference list

Environment Agency (2019). Swim healthy. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/swim-healthy-leaflet/swim-healthy (Accessed: 16 January 2020).

 

Example: Web page (no author)

Replace what would be the author with the title. 

  • Title of web page (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

A rewilding project (2019) has been met...

Reference list

Farmers 'misunderstand' Wales rewilding project. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-49666610 (Accessed: 23 September 2019). 

 

Example: Web page (no date)

If you cannot identify the publication date of a web page, cite it using n.d. (no date).

In-text citation

(Allen n.d.)

Reference list

Allen, J. n.d. No Shopping for A Month: What I Learned From My Month in Exile. Available at: https://www.stayathomemum.com.au/my-money/money-saving-tips/no-shopping-for-a-month-what-i-learned-from-my-month-in-exile/ (Accessed: 24 March 2020).

 

If you can't find the information required  - such as author and/or date, you should indicate any missing information clearly in your reference list, using the page title when no author is named and ‘n.d.’ when no date is available.

When referencing your own work, use this order:

  •   Name. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  •   Year of submission. (in round brackets)
  •   'Title of work', (in single quotation marks).
  •    Module code: module title (in italics).
  •    Institution
  •    Unpublished essay/assignment

 Example: Student's own work

In-text citation:

(Smith, 2019)

The assignment written looked at water quality (Smith, 2018)  with the environmental impact...

Reference list:

Smith, S. (2019). ‘Water quality in Welsh rivers', MM56340: Business Impacts. Town University. Unpublished essay.

A document found on the web can be a government report or policy documents. When referencing an online document, follow this order:

  • Author (Surname, then initials). 
  • (Year of publication if given).  (in brackets)
  • Title of document (in italics)
  • [Online],
  • Place of publication,
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example: online document

In-text citation:

(Munafò, 2019)

Munafò (2019) states …
 

Reference list:
Munafò, M. (2019).  Scientific Ecosystems and Research Reproducibility. [Online] Royal London, Society of Biology.  Available at: https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/groups-and-committees/asg/asg-membership/animal-science-meetings/animal-science-meeting-2019-report (Accessed: 23 March 2019).

When referencing an image found in a book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

If the image is taken from another work (e.g. book) it should be treated and cited as part of that book (print).  Reference an image in a book using the book format, adding the page number to the citation.

Example: Print image

In-text citation:

(Campbell et al, 2015)

Campbell et al. (2015) have clearly illustrated how a plant cell functions.

Note: If you were to include this in your essay, the caption and citation below the image would look similar to this:

Figure 7. The functions and flow of genetic information within a plant cell (Campbell et al., 2015, pp. 282-283).

Reference list:

Campbell, N.A., Reece, Jane B., Urry, Lisa A., Cain, Michael L., Wasserman, Steven A., Minorsky, Peter V., Jackson, Robert B. (2014). Biology : a global approach. Tenth edition. Boston: Pearson.

When referencing an online image, follow this order:

  • Person responsible for the image. (Surname, followed by initials) OR Corporate Author.

  • Year published. (in brackets)

  • Title/description. (in italics)

  • [format]  (image/photograph etc.)

  • Available at: URL

  • (Accessed Day Month Year). (in brackets)

Example: Online image

In-text citation:

(Rana, 2013)

The image by Rana (2013) depicts...

Reference list:

Rana, S. (2013). Library Levitation. [image] Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/saharranaphotography/13178176575/  [Accessed 23 March 2020].

A few points to remember when using et al.:

  • Regardless of source type and format (book, e-book, article, conference papers, online newspaper article etc.), useet al.’ if the work has three authors or more.
  • Et al. is the Latin term for 'and others'.
  • Et al. should be italicised when used in a written text.
  • Given that ‘et al.’ is a shortening it is important to remember the full stop at the end of ‘al.’ to indicate that.
  • Include the surname of the first author only followed by ‘et al.’ in the in-text citation surrounded by brackets 
    • (First author surname et al., + year of publication: + p. with the page number where the quote can be found)
    • (Huws et al., 2013: p.14)
  • Don't use et al. in the reference list - all the authors' names must be included in your reference list, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. 

Example

In-text citation

Torrington et al. (2014) demonstrated...

(Torrington et al. 2014)

Quote:

" Aside from storage, the rumen is also a fermentation vat." (Huws et al., 2013: p.14).

 

Reference
Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C. (2014). Human resource management. 9th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

When referencing an article found in a print journal, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in round brackets).
  • 'Title of article', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of journal, (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for).
  • Issue information, that is, volume (not in brackets)  and, where applicable, issue number, month or season (all in round brackets).
    • For example: 
      • Just volume number (no issue number):  Animal Science, 33, 44-50.
      • Volume number and issue number:   The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 24 (2), 365-373. 
  • Page reference.

Example: Print journal article

In-text citation

(Reimers and Eftestol, 2012)

Reimers and Eftestol (2012) investigated....

Reference list

Reimers, E., and Eftestol, S. (2012). 'Response behaviors of Svalbard reindeer towards humans and humans disguised as polar bears on Edgeoya'. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 44, 483-489.

When referencing an article, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the article', (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the journal (in italics - ensure the first letter of each word is a capital except for the linking words)
  • Issue information - volume (issue number)  (all in round brackets - except the volume)
  • Page reference
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi) if available.
 
Example: Online journal article

In -text citation

(Zimerman, 2012)

Zimerman discusses in detail the review of the literature on digital natives (2012) ...

Reference list

Zimerman, M. (2012). 'Digital natives, searching behavior and the library', New Library World, 113(3/4), 174-201. doi: 10.1108/03074801211218552.

If you refer to a chapter of a book by a contributor in an edited book, you cite just the contributor, not the editor.

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • In
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Edited by (first name, last name)
  • Page range
  • Place of publication: publisher

 

in-text citation

(Briassoulis, 2004)

Research by Briassoulis (2004) highlighted the fact...

 

Reference list

Briassoulis, H., (2004). 'Crete: endowed by nature, privileged by geography, threatened by tourism?' in Coastal mass tourism: diversification and sustainable development in Southern Europe. Edited by Bill Bramwell, p. 48-62. Clevedon: Channel View.

 

If there is more than one contributing author who wrote the chapter, you must list all authors in the reference list at the end of your work e.g. Jones, A., Jones, B. and Jones, C., (2010) etc...

 

If the ebook has page numbers and publication details, then use the book format to reference.

Follow this order;

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (if available).

See the Harvard style 'Book' examples on the previous tab.

When referencing a printed book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

 

Example: Book (one author)

In -text citation

(Affelt, 2019)

Affelt (2019) suggests that ...

Reference list

Affelt, A. (2019). All that's not fit to print. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

 

Example: Book (two authors) 
If the work has two authors, include all names in your citation.

In-text citation

(Pears and Shields, 2013)

According to Pears and Shields (2013)...

Reference list

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013). Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. London: Palgrave.

 

Please note that the following example is drawn from the referencing guidelines for the Department of International Politics. Whilst this example will be helpful to you in completing the quiz, it must be remembered that other departments using the Harvard referencing style may use 'et.al.' differently. When writing your assignments, it is important to adhere to the guidelines outlined in your department's handbooks on referencing.

 

Example: Book (three or more authors)

If a book has three or more authors, only the first author's name should be listed in-text followed by 'et al.', meaning 'and others'. However, all authors should be listed in the reference list in the order they are credited in the original work.

You must place a full stop at the end of al. and italicise: et al. 

In-text citation

(Dym et al. 2009)

This was discussed by Dym et al. (2009)…

Reference list

Dym, C.L., Little, P., Orwin, E.J., and Spjut, R.E. (2009). Engineering design: a project-based introduction. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 

 

Example: Book (no author)

You may come across a book with no recognisable author. When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year.  Use the first few words if the title is too long. 

To be made up of:

  • Title (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in round brackets).
  • Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition).
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (where relevant).

In-text citation:

(Medicine in old age, 1985)

It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved (Medicine in old age, 1985)…

Reference list:

Medicine in old age (1985) 2nd ed. London: British Medical Association.

English & Creative Writing - MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association)

The English & Creative Writing department's Stylesheet for Essays, Dissertations and other Coursework can be found in Blackboard. This is a summary of the advice and examples provided there. Have the stylesheet to hand while you work and refer to it for more detail. Your work should be double-spaced and you are advised to be guided by the punctuation in the example references.
The stylesheet is based on the MHRA Style Guide (3rd edition).

Citing means mentioning the titles of books and other items in your work

  • When you mention the title of a self-contained publication (For example, a book, a journal, or a newspaper), you italicise the title.
  • When you mention the title of something which is only part of a self-contained publication (For example, a chapter, a single poem, or an article) you enclose the title in single inverted comms

Example:

C. J. Atkin, in a recent article called ‘Busy Old Fools’ in Essays in Criticism, discusses Donne’s ‘The Sun Rising’, relating it to several aspects of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Her conclusions are different from those she reached a few years ago in her book Renaissance Resonances, in which Chapter Seven, ‘Donne Speaks to Shakespeare’, deals more briefly with the same topic.

In the example

  • ‘Busy Old Fools’ is a single article in a journal
  • Essays in Criticism is a journal
  • ‘The Sun Rising’ is the title of a single poem
  • Hamlet is a complete play
  • Renaissance Resonances is a book
  • ‘Donne Speaks to Shakespeare’ is a chapter in a book

A full reference to each citation must be included in the bibliography.

Short quotations can be anything up to 40 words and are enclosed single inverted commas.

The first quotation from a source

The first quotation from a source is referenced with a footnote. How do I insert a footnote into an MS Word document?

If there are subsequent quotations from the same source in the work, the first reference is followed by a sentence explaining how subsequent references will be referred to. 

Example

It has been argued that 'history first ended at the beginning of the nineteenth century.'¹
________

¹Jerome Christensen, ‘The Romantic Movement at the End of History’, Critical Enquiry, 20 (1994), 452-76 (p. 456). Subsequent references to this source are given in the text as ‘Christensen’ followed by the page number.

Note

  • The author’s name is given as ‘first name surname’
  • A specific page or page range is provided, lower case ‘p.’ for ‘page’ and ‘pp.’ for ‘pages’, to provide the location of the quotation
  • You can replace the author’s name in the ‘Subsequent references…’ sentence with a short title of the source if you are quoting several sources by the same author in your work.
Subsequent quotations from the same source

A subsequent quotation from the same source is referenced by a brief reference in brackets within the work as shown in the example.

Example

For the Romantics, an acute ‘sense of cultural belatedness’ (Christensen, p. 467) co-existed with their equally strong sense of being cultural pioneers.

Long quotations are

  • more than 40 words
  • introduced by a colon in your work
  • separated by a blank line (double-spaced) before and after
  • indented throughout from the left-hand margin but not centred
  • referenced in the same way as short quotations; the brief reference in bracket in the example below indicates this is not the first quotation from Boland in this work

Example

Boland has argued that the trope of ‘woman-as-nation’ often led to stylized and idealised depictions of Irish womanhood:

The women in Irish male poems tended to be emblematic and passive, granted a purely ornamental status. Once the feminine image in their poems became fused with a national concept then both were simplified and reduced. It was the absence of women in the poetic tradition which allowed women in the poems to be simplified. (Boland, p.47)

Later in the same essay, Boland gives a number of examples of this process by which ‘woman’ has often been ‘simplified’ in Irish poetry.

Verse is treated in a similar way to other quotations however there are some differences.

  • The reference needs to be to the line(s) (where available), rather than the page(s). Verse quotations get: ‘l.’ for ‘line’ and ‘ll.’ for ‘lines’. 
Short verse quotation

A short verse quotation is two lines of verse from a poem or play

  • Indicate a line break with a forward slash /

Example (not the first reference Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales as indicated by the brief reference in brackets)

‘Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote / The droghte of Marche hath perced to the rote’ (Chaucer, ll. 1-2).

Long verse quotation

Follow the lineation of the original. This means that you neither add the ‘/’ to indicate line breaks, nor do you run lines together into a block of prose.

The bibliography is a list of ALL of the sources cited or referenced in your essay, but does not include those you have only consulted.

  • Details matter. Even seemingly minor ones such as punctuation.
  • Your bibliography should start on a new page at the end of your essay.
  • There is no full stop at the end of each entry.
  • The bibliography lists sources in alphabetical order by author’s surname. 
  • Be consistent throughout. 
Example: A critical edition of a primary work

Wordsworth, William and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lyrical Ballads, 2nd edn, ed. by R. L. Brett and A. R. Jones (London: Routledge, 1991)

Example: a single-authored (or co-authored) book

Turner, Marion, Chaucerian Conflict: Languages of Antagonism in Late Fourteenth-Century London (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2007) 

Example: An essay or chapter in an edited collection / book

Ferguson, Frances, ‘Malthus, Godwin, Wordsworth, and the Spirit of Solitude’, in Literature and the Body: Essays on Populations and Persons, ed. by Elaine Scarry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), pp. 106-24

Example: an article in a journal

Christensen, Jerome, ‘The Romantic Movement at the End of History’, Critical Enquiry, 20 (1994), 452-76

Example: An article in a scholarly journal published exclusively online

Franey, Laura, 'Terror and Liberation on the Railway in Women's Short Stories of 1894', NineteenthCentury Gender Studies, 14.1 (2018), <https://www.ncgsjournal.com/issue141/franey.htm> [accessed 10 September 2018]

Example: An article accessed on a website

Flood, Alison, ‘Cloud Atlas “astonishingly different” in US and UK editions, study finds’, The Guardian (2016), <http://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/aug/10/cloud-atlas-astonishinglydifferent-in-us-and-uk-editions-study-finds> [accessed 23 August 2018]

Example: a film / movie

Metropolis, dir. By Fritz Lang (UFA, 1927) 

Geography & Earth Science - Harvard Style

The quiz at the end of this guide is based on the examples given here but there are different versions of Harvard so always use your department’s guidance.

Use each tab to discover examples of how to correctly acknowledge different sources in your assignments.

When referencing a blog, use this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated. (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of message', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of website, (in italics).
  • Day/month of posted message
  • [Blog].
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: Blog

In-text citation:

(Marikar, 2018)

Marikar (2018) suggested...

Reference list:

Marikar, S. (2018). ‘The First Family of Memes', The New Yorker, 1 October. [Blog]. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/10/01/the-first-family-of-memes (Accessed: 22 January 2019). 

To reference a thesis or dissertaion, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, then intitials)
  • Year of submission. (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.

If viewed online, add:

  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

Example:

In-text citation:

(Brennan, 1993)

Research by Brennan (1993) suggests that…

Reference list:

Brennan, S.M. (1993) Aspects of Equine Pituitary Abnormality. MSc. Aberystwyth University. 

When referencing conference papers, follow this order:

Print

  • Author. (Surname, and then initials)
  • (year of publication). (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’,
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • Page numbers.

Example

In-text citation:
(Jones, 1994)

Jones (1994) says ...

Reference list:

Jones, J. (1994). ‘Polymer blends based on compact disc scrap’, Proceedings of the Annual Technical Conference – Society of Plastics Engineers. San Francisco, 1–5 May. Brookfield, CT: Society of Plastics Engineers, 2865–7.

 

Online conference papers

  • Author. (Surname, then initials)
  • (year of publication) (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’ (single quotation marks)
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Publisher
  • [Online].
  • Available at URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example

In-text citation

(Jones, 1999) 

Jones (1999) says ...

Reference list

Jones, D. (1999) ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. [Online] Available at: http://www.bigbusinesses.co.uk/jonesd (Accessed: 15 April 2018).

When referencing standards, use this order:

  • Organisation.
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Number:
  • Title of the standard, (in italics)
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher. 

Example: Standards

In-text citation:
(BSI 8001, 2017)

BSI 8001 (2017) says ...

Reference list:
British Standards Institution (2017). BS 8001: Framework for implementing the principles of the circular economy in organizations: Guide, London: British Standards Institution. 

Note: if you find the standards online, add the following after the title:

  • [Online],
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

For example:

British Standards Institution (2005) BS EN ISO 17707: Footwear. Test Methods for Outsoles. Flex Resistance, British Standards, [Online]. Available at https://bsol-bsigroup-com. libezproxy.open.ac.uk/en/Bsol-ItemDetail-Page/?pid=000000000030105824 (Accessed 10 May 2017).

There are many different versions of maps. Look through the following examples and follow the order provided.

Printed map 

Ordnance Survey map

  • Ordnance Survey
  • (Year). (in brackets)
  • Title of map, (in italics)
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Map/sheet number,
  • Scale.
  • Map series if appropriate.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example: 

In text citation:

(Ordnance Survey, 2016)

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (2016). Aberystwyth and Machynlleth. Ed C. 135, 1:50 000. Landranger series. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Online maps

Digimap

  • Map publisher
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title/description of map. (in italics)
  • Scale.
  • Source (Map Product).
  • Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap
  • (Created on date).

Example:

In-text citation

(Ordnance Survey, 2011)

Reference list

Ordnance Survey, (2011). Aberystwyth University: Gogerddan Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap. [online] Available at: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/  (Accessed 31 August 2011).

Google Earth Maps

  • Google Earth version (if applicable),
  • (Year data released). (in brackets)
  • Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. (in italics)
  • Data set (if applicable).
  • [online]
  • Available: URL
  • (Accessed date). 

Example:

In-text citation
(Google Earth, 2008)

Reference list

Google Earth 6.0. (2008).  Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D map, Buildings data layer [online] Available at: http://www.google.com/earth/index/html  (Accessed 23 September 2019).

Refinitiv Workspace is a financial database.

Follow this order:

  • Publishing organisation
  • Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets) this is often the current year
  • Title of extract (in single quotation marks) or use the heading at the top of the screen that indicates what the data is or alternatively write your search of how you obtained the data eg. 'Search results for...'
  • Available at: URL  (if available)
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text citation

Refinitiv (2023) noted an increase in 50% in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

Refinitiv (2023) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed: 2 November 2022).

In-text citation

IBISWorld (2018) noted problems in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

IBISWorld (2018) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed 2 November 2019).

When referencing an article from a print newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year published). (in brackets)
  • 'Article title'. (in single quotation marks).
  • Newspaper, (in italics)
  • Page(s).

Example: print newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Browne, 2010)

Browne (2010) mentions...

Reference list

Browne, R. (2010). 'This brainless patient is no dummy'. Sydney Morning Herald, 21 March, 45.

When referencing an article from an online newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • 'Title of article'. (in single quotation marks)
  • Newspaper title. (in italics)
  • Date published. (day and month)
  • Available at:URL
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: online newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Ough, 2015)

Ough (2015) questions...

Reference list:

Ough, T. (2014). 'It's so easy to focus on what you can't do after a stroke, rather than what you can'. The Times. 31 December. Available at: https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/GYEXJD027471504/TTDA?u=uniaber&sid=TTDA&xid=f84faf80 (Accessed 23 March 2019).

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (individual author/organisation)
  • Author (Surname, followed by initials) OR organisation
  • (Year that the site was published/last updated). (in brackets)
  • Title of the webpage (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

(Environment Agency, 2019)

The Environment Agency (2019) identifies the ...

Reference list

Environment Agency (2019). Swim healthy. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/swim-healthy-leaflet/swim-healthy (Accessed: 16 January 2020).

 

Example: Web page (no author)

Replace what would be the author with the title. 

  • Title of web page (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

A rewilding project (2019) has been met...

Reference list

Farmers 'misunderstand' Wales rewilding project. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-49666610 (Accessed: 23 September 2019). 

 

Example: Web page (no date)

If you cannot identify the publication date of a web page, cite it using n.d. (no date).

In-text citation

(Allen n.d.)

Reference list

Allen, J. n.d. No Shopping for A Month: What I Learned From My Month in Exile. Available at: https://www.stayathomemum.com.au/my-money/money-saving-tips/no-shopping-for-a-month-what-i-learned-from-my-month-in-exile/ (Accessed: 24 March 2020).

 

If you can't find the information required  - such as author and/or date, you should indicate any missing information clearly in your reference list, using the page title when no author is named and ‘n.d.’ when no date is available.

When referencing your own work, use this order:

  •   Name. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  •   Year of submission. (in round brackets)
  •   'Title of work', (in single quotation marks).
  •    Module code: module title (in italics).
  •    Institution
  •    Unpublished essay/assignment

 Example: Student's own work

In-text citation:

(Smith, 2019)

The assignment written looked at water quality (Smith, 2018)  with the environmental impact...

Reference list:

Smith, S. (2019). ‘Water quality in Welsh rivers', MM56340: Business Impacts. Town University. Unpublished essay.

A document found on the web can be a government report or policy documents. When referencing an online document, follow this order:

  • Author (Surname, then initials). 
  • (Year of publication if given).  (in brackets)
  • Title of document (in italics)
  • [Online],
  • Place of publication,
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example: online document

In-text citation:

(Munafò, 2019)

Munafò (2019) states …
 

Reference list:
Munafò, M. (2019).  Scientific Ecosystems and Research Reproducibility. [Online] Royal London, Society of Biology.  Available at: https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/groups-and-committees/asg/asg-membership/animal-science-meetings/animal-science-meeting-2019-report (Accessed: 23 March 2019).

When referencing an image found in a book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

If the image is taken from another work (e.g. book) it should be treated and cited as part of that book (print).  Reference an image in a book using the book format, adding the page number to the citation.

Example: Print image

In-text citation:

(Campbell et al, 2015)

Campbell et al. (2015) have clearly illustrated how a plant cell functions.

Note: If you were to include this in your essay, the caption and citation below the image would look similar to this:

Figure 7. The functions and flow of genetic information within a plant cell (Campbell et al., 2015, pp. 282-283).

Reference list:

Campbell, N.A., Reece, Jane B., Urry, Lisa A., Cain, Michael L., Wasserman, Steven A., Minorsky, Peter V., Jackson, Robert B. (2014). Biology : a global approach. Tenth edition. Boston: Pearson.

When referencing an online image, follow this order:

  • Person responsible for the image. (Surname, followed by initials) OR Corporate Author.

  • Year published. (in brackets)

  • Title/description. (in italics)

  • [format]  (image/photograph etc.)

  • Available at: URL

  • (Accessed Day Month Year). (in brackets)

Example: Online image

In-text citation:

(Rana, 2013)

The image by Rana (2013) depicts...

Reference list:

Rana, S. (2013). Library Levitation. [image] Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/saharranaphotography/13178176575/  [Accessed 23 March 2020].

A few points to remember when using et al.:

  • Regardless of source type and format (book, e-book, article, conference papers, online newspaper article etc.), useet al.’ if the work has three authors or more.
  • Et al. is the Latin term for 'and others'.
  • Et al. should be italicised when used in a written text.
  • Given that ‘et al.’ is a shortening it is important to remember the full stop at the end of ‘al.’ to indicate that.
  • Include the surname of the first author only followed by ‘et al.’ in the in-text citation surrounded by brackets 
    • (First author surname et al., + year of publication: + p. with the page number where the quote can be found)
    • (Huws et al., 2013: p.14)
  • Don't use et al. in the reference list - all the authors' names must be included in your reference list, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. 

Example

In-text citation

Torrington et al. (2014) demonstrated...

(Torrington et al. 2014)

Quote:

" Aside from storage, the rumen is also a fermentation vat." (Huws et al., 2013: p.14).

 

Reference
Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C. (2014). Human resource management. 9th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

When referencing an article found in a print journal, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in round brackets).
  • 'Title of article', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of journal, (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for).
  • Issue information, that is, volume (not in brackets)  and, where applicable, issue number, month or season (all in round brackets).
    • For example: 
      • Just volume number (no issue number):  Animal Science, 33, 44-50.
      • Volume number and issue number:   The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 24 (2), 365-373. 
  • Page reference.

Example: Print journal article

In-text citation

(Reimers and Eftestol, 2012)

Reimers and Eftestol (2012) investigated....

Reference list

Reimers, E., and Eftestol, S. (2012). 'Response behaviors of Svalbard reindeer towards humans and humans disguised as polar bears on Edgeoya'. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 44, 483-489.

When referencing an article, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the article', (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the journal (in italics - ensure the first letter of each word is a capital except for the linking words)
  • Issue information - volume (issue number)  (all in round brackets - except the volume)
  • Page reference
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi) if available.
 
Example: Online journal article

In -text citation

(Zimerman, 2012)

Zimerman discusses in detail the review of the literature on digital natives (2012) ...

Reference list

Zimerman, M. (2012). 'Digital natives, searching behavior and the library', New Library World, 113(3/4), 174-201. doi: 10.1108/03074801211218552.

If you refer to a chapter of a book by a contributor in an edited book, you cite just the contributor, not the editor.

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • In
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Edited by (first name, last name)
  • Page range
  • Place of publication: publisher

 

in-text citation

(Briassoulis, 2004)

Research by Briassoulis (2004) highlighted the fact...

 

Reference list

Briassoulis, H., (2004). 'Crete: endowed by nature, privileged by geography, threatened by tourism?' in Coastal mass tourism: diversification and sustainable development in Southern Europe. Edited by Bill Bramwell, p. 48-62. Clevedon: Channel View.

 

If there is more than one contributing author who wrote the chapter, you must list all authors in the reference list at the end of your work e.g. Jones, A., Jones, B. and Jones, C., (2010) etc...

 

If the ebook has page numbers and publication details, then use the book format to reference.

Follow this order;

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (if available).

See the Harvard style 'Book' examples on the previous tab.

When referencing a printed book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

 

Example: Book (one author)

In -text citation

(Affelt, 2019)

Affelt (2019) suggests that ...

Reference list

Affelt, A. (2019). All that's not fit to print. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

 

Example: Book (two authors) 
If the work has two authors, include all names in your citation.

In-text citation

(Pears and Shields, 2013)

According to Pears and Shields (2013)...

Reference list

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013). Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. London: Palgrave.

 

Please note that the following example is drawn from the referencing guidelines for the Department of International Politics. Whilst this example will be helpful to you in completing the quiz, it must be remembered that other departments using the Harvard referencing style may use 'et.al.' differently. When writing your assignments, it is important to adhere to the guidelines outlined in your department's handbooks on referencing.

 

Example: Book (three or more authors)

If a book has three or more authors, only the first author's name should be listed in-text followed by 'et al.', meaning 'and others'. However, all authors should be listed in the reference list in the order they are credited in the original work.

You must place a full stop at the end of al. and italicise: et al. 

In-text citation

(Dym et al. 2009)

This was discussed by Dym et al. (2009)…

Reference list

Dym, C.L., Little, P., Orwin, E.J., and Spjut, R.E. (2009). Engineering design: a project-based introduction. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 

 

Example: Book (no author)

You may come across a book with no recognisable author. When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year.  Use the first few words if the title is too long. 

To be made up of:

  • Title (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in round brackets).
  • Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition).
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (where relevant).

In-text citation:

(Medicine in old age, 1985)

It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved (Medicine in old age, 1985)…

Reference list:

Medicine in old age (1985) 2nd ed. London: British Medical Association.

Healthcare Education - APA 7th Edition (American Psychological Association)

Things to remember - the basics

One of the major features of academic writing is acknowledging the books, journal articles and other information sources that you have used, by citing them one-by-one in your assignment and listing them all at the end in a reference list. Often there are many marks for doing this correctly so it is a skill worth learning as soon as you can.

If you don't acknowledge your sources you might pass off someone else's ideas, quotations etc. as your own. This is plagiarism which is not permitted by the University and can have serious consequences for you.

Contact Simone sia1@aber.ac.uk / librarians@aber.ac.uk your Subject Librarian if you need any further advice or help.

Book a Healthcare Education APA 7th edition refresher appointment hereIf I am unavailable, please click here to make an appointment with another member of the library team

Healthcare Education LibGuide

Referencing & Plagiarism Awareness LibGuide

This page provides examples of commonly cited sources. Please refer to the APA 7th edittion Healthcare Education departmental guide here:

APA 7th Edition apastyle.apa.org/

This style uses an author-date format for the in-text citations and then the full source details are listed A-Z in the reference list.

Examples of In-text citations:
  • As part of the narrative e.g. Adams (2019) argues that...
  • Directly following a phrase e.g. The current guide provides an overview of APA (Adams, 2019).

If you are citing a direct quote, make sure to use "quotation marks" and to include the page number after the year: (Adams, 2019, p. 61).

If you are citing a book or article which has several authors, follow these rules:

2 authors: always cite them both (Polit & Beck, 2017) 

3-20 authors: Cite the first authors’ last name followed by et al (Perry et al., 2020)

Note the difference between narrative and parenthetical citations.​
According to Chambers and Ryder (2018) compassion is….​
…compassion is a key aspect of nursing care (Chambers Ryder, 2018).

Abbreviations example:

First citation: Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC, 2018)...or...(Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC), 2018).

Subsequent citations: NMC (2018)...or...(NMC, 2018).

See the following tabs for advice on creating the reference list.

Quotations (definition examples)

The APA advise to use direct quotations sparingly. If you are citing a direct quote, make sure to use "quotation marks" and to include the page number after the year: (Adams, 2019, p. 61).

One example of when to use a quotation, rather than paraphrasing, is when you are reproducing an exact definition.

Example 1

Citation

 “Admission is the formal acceptance of a patient into a service” (National Health Service, 2019, p.8).

Reference

National Health Service. (2019). Admission, transfer, and discharge policy for inpatient services. https://www.dtgp.cpft.nhs.uk/FileHandler.ashx?id=794

When the author and publisher are the same, omit the name of the publisher to avoid repetition.

Example 2

Citation

“The act or process of allowing someone to enter a hospital as a patient, because they need medical care” (Cambridge University Press, n.d.).

Reference

Cambridge University Press. (n.d.). Hospital Admission. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved February 22, 2024 from https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/hospital-admission

When an online reference work is continuously updated and not archived use "n.d." and include a retrieval date. Most references do not include retrieval dates.

APA: Quotations

APA: Dictionary Entry References

Creating the reference list:

When referencing a book follow this order:

  • Authors, surnames followed by initials
  • Year of publication, in brackets
  • Title, in italics
  • Edition of book (if not first edition)
  • Publisher
Examples: Book

Reference list:

Barber, P., & Robertson, D. (2020). Essentials of pharmacology for nurses (4th ed.). Open University Press.

Jasper, M. (2013). Beginning reflective practice (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning.

When referencing an e-book follow this order:

  • Authors or editors (Eds.), surnames followed by initials.
  • Year of publication, in brackets.
  • Title of book, in italics.
  • Edition (if not the first edition)
  • URL or DOI link

*If the ebook is from an academic research database and has no DOI or stable URL, end the book reference after the publisher name. Do not include the name of the database in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book.

Examples: e-book

Loschiavo, J. (2015). Fast Facts for the School Nurse: School Nursing in a Nutshell (2nd ed.). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1891/9780826128775

Cottrell, S. (2019). The study skills handbook (5th ed.). Red Globe Press.

 

When referencing a chapter from an edited book follow this order:

  • Chapter authors, surname first, followed by initials.
  • Year of publication
  • Chapter title
  • In + authors of the whole book (Initials followed by surname), + Eds.
  • Title of the book
  • Pages of chapter
  • Publisher
Examples: chapter from a book

Grayer, J., Baxter, J., Blackburn, L., Cooper, J., Curtis, E., Dvorjez, L., Finn, L., Gaynor, D., Henderson, B., Jagger, C., Keating, L., Leigh-Doyle, J., Lister, S., Mathiah, R., & Mohanmmed, A. (2021). Communication, psychological wellbeing and safeguarding. In S. E. Lister, J. Hofland & H. Grafton (Eds.), The Royal Marsden manual of clinical nursing procedures (10th ed., pp. 133-204). Wiley-Blackwell.

Smyth, M. J., & Filipkowski, B.K. (2010). Coping with stress. In D. French, K. Vadhara, A.A. Kaptein, & J. Weinman (Eds.), Health Psychology (pp. 271-283). Blackwell Publishing.

*When including this as an in-text citation, you would just cite the chapter authors and not the editors. For example: Smyth and Filipkowski (2010) state that… or…(Smyth & Filipkowski, 2010).

When referencing an article follow this order:

  • Authors, surnames followed by initials.
  • Year of publication, in brackets.
  • Title of the article.
  • Journal title, in italics.
  • Volume of the journal, in italics.
  • Issue of the journal, in brackets.
  • Page range of the article.
  • DOI of the article, if available.
Examples: Journal article

Edwards, A. A., Steacy, L. M., Siegelman, N., Rigobon, V. M., Kearns, D. M., Rueckl, J. G., & Compton, D. L. (2022). Unpacking the unique relationship between set for variability and word reading development: Examining word- and child-level predictors of performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 114(6), 1242–1256. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000696

Jones, A., Rahman, R.J., & O, J.A. (2019). Crisis in the Countryside - Barriers to Nurse Recruitment and Retention in Rural Areas of High-Income Countries: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis. Journal of rural studies, 72, 153–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.10.007

When referencing a webpage follow this order:

  • Author surname, followed by initials OR name of organisation. Title of webpage if there's no author.
  • Year of publication (in brackets).
  • Title.
  • URL.
Example: webpage

World Health Organisation. (2019). WHO updates global guidance on medicines and diagnostic tests to address health challenges, prioritise highly effective therapeutics, and improve affordable access. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/09-07-2019-who-updates-global-guidance-on-medicines-and-diagnostic-tests-to-address-health-challenges-prioritize-highly-effective-therapeutics-and-improve-affordable-access

document on the web can include government reports or policy documents. 

  • Authors, including initials.
  • Year of publication, in brackets.
  • Title, in italics.
  • URL.
Examples:

Nursing & Midwifery Council. (2018). The Code: Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses, midwives and nursing associates. https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/nmc-publications/nmc-code.pdf

Powys Teaching Health Board. (2017). The Health and Care Strategy for Powys: A vision to 2027 and beyond. https://pthb.nhs.wales/about-us/key-documents/strategies-and-plans/health-and-care-strategy-for-powys-2017-2027-summary/

Welsh Government. (2018). A Healthier Wales: our Plan for Health and Social Care. https://www.gov.wales/sites/default/files/publications/2021-09/a-healthier-wales-our-plan-for-health-and-social-care.pdf 

Welsh Government. (2022). Quality statement for palliative and end of life care for Waleshttps://www.gov.wales/sites/default/files/pdf-versions/2022/10/5/1665148261/quality-statement-palliative-and-end-life-care-wales.pdf

Examples:

Acts/Measures/Statutes

In-text

(Mental Health (Wales) Measure, 2010) or Mental Health (Wales) Measure, (2010)

Reference list

Mental Health (Wales) Measure 2010. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/mwa/2010/7/contents 

---

In-text

(Children Act, 1989) or Children Act (1989)

Reference list

Children Act 1989, c. 41. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1989/41

---

Supreme court case

In-text

(Montgomery v. Lanarkshire Health Board, 2015) or Montgomery v. Lanarkshire Health Board (2015)

Reference list

Montgomery v. Lanarkshire Health Board, UKSC 11 (2015). https://www.supremecourt.uk/cases/docs/uksc-2013-0136-judgment.pdf

The NMC Code

Remember to write out the Nursing & Midwifery Council in full the first time it appears in your assignment. 

Abbreviations example:

First citation: Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC, 2018) or (Nursing & Midwifery Council [NMC], 2018).

Subsequent citations: 

NMC (2018) or (NMC, 2018).

It would appear once in your reference list:

Nursing & Midwifery Council. (2018). The Code: Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses, midwives and nursing associates. https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/nmc-publications/nmc-code.pdf

---

When it is useful to include the section of the code that you are referring to, the Ethics Code References, from the APA website suggests that you should format your in-text citations as follows:

Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC, 2018, Section 7.3) or (Nursing & Midwifery Council [NMC], 2018, Section 7.3).

Secondary referencing 

Within APA referencing you are always encouraged to go to the original source. However, sometimes this is not always possible perhaps because of a lack of access to the original source or simply because the original source is unavailable. In these instances, you would cite and reference these works slightly differently as presented below.

In-text citation
Gibbs’ reflective cycle (1988) as cited in Jasper (2013) indicates that...

OR

A seminal theory in reflective practice, is Gibbs’ reflective cycle (Gibbs, 1988, as cited in Jasper, 2013).

In the reference list
Jasper, M. (2013). 
Beginning reflective practice (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning.

Find this book in Primo

How do I reference the British National Formulary (BNF)? 

In-text citation 

Joint Formulary Committee (2024) or (Joint Formulary Committee, 2024). 

Example 

As stated in the British National Formulary (BNF) the recommended dosage for adults is 10mg daily (Joint Formulary Committee, 2024). 

Reference 

Joint Formulary Committee. (2024). Atorvastatin. In British national formulary. Retrieved April 15, 2024, from https://bnf.nice.org.uk/drugs/atorvastatin/  

When an online reference work is continuously updated, include a retrieval date. Most references do not include retrieval dates.  

The Joint Formulary Committee (JFC) authors the British National Formulary (BNF) content, while the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) hosts its online version. 

Use newspaper articles as a starting point for research. They are not considered academic sources. Use the following format:

  • Author surnames, followed by initials.
  • Year, month and date of publication, in brackets.
  • Title of article.
  • Newspaper title, in italics.
  • Page range OR URL, if an online article.
Example: Newspaper article:

Duggan, C. (2022, September 5). Aberystwyth Uni nursing degree to encourage Welsh speakers. BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-62779992

Sisley, D. (2020, February 22). Can science cure a broken heart?. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2020/feb/22/can-science-cure-a-broken-heart

Creating a reference to ChatGPT or other AI models and software using APA 7th Edition referencing

The University guidelines state that "presenting work generated by AI as if it were your own" is a form of plagiarism and therefore constitutes unacceptable academic practice. Full details on the University's guidelines on unacceptable practice can be found here

Guidance on the ethical and effective use of AI for learning is found in our LibGuide Utilising AI in the Library: A Student's Guide: What is AI? 

Social media posts, such as Twitter and Facebook, are not considered academic sources. Use them as a starting point and reference to your academic research. Use the following format:

  • Username or group name
  • Date as year, month, day. In brackets. If there's no date put (n.d.)
  • Post title, followed by type of source in [ ] brackets.
  • Retrieved, followed by month, day, year,
  • from URL
Examples: Social Media post

Barack Obama. (2009, October 9). Humbled [Facebook update]. Retrieved May, 14, 2020, from http://www.facebook.com/posted.php?id=6815841748&share

YouTube Video

University of Oxford. (2020, November 23). Oxford University’s ‘vaccine for the world’ is effective [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xHJ_RqeXXy0

*In-text citation quote “The vaccine is shown to protect against hospitalisation and severe disease” (University of Oxford, 2020, 0:18).

How do I reference the 6Cs?
NHS England. (2016). Compassion in practice: Evidencing the impact. London. https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/cip-yr-3.pdf

How do I reference a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline?
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2023). Hypertension in adults: Diagnosis and management (NICE Guideline NG136). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng136

How do I reference the practice assessment document and ongoing record of achievement?

All Wales Pre-Registration Nursing and Midwifery Group. (2020). All Wales practice assessment document and ongoing record of achievement for pre-registration nursing programmes. Health Education and Improvement Wales. https://heiw.nhs.wales/files/once-for-wales/documents/all-wales-practice-assessment-document/

How do I reference the Francis report?

Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry. (2013). Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry: Executive summary (HC 947). The Stationery Office. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/279124/0947.pdf

How do I reference the NEWS tool?

Royal College of Physicians. (2017). National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2: Standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. https://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/projects/outputs/national-early-warning-score-news-2

Why can't Healthcare students access help with referencing for 7 days prior to an assignment due date?

FAQ 9302

History & Welsh History - MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association)

References and Footnotes

When you first refer to an item in a footnote, provide the full reference. On the second and every succeeding reference to the same item, use a short title. Fuller guidance may be found on the departmental ‘Style Guide’ in the undergraduate and postgraduate folders on Blackboard.

Bibliographies

All assessed coursework should include a bibliography of works consulted at the end of the main text. If you have used both primary and secondary sources in your work, you should subdivide the bibliography into sections: primary sources, secondary sources, websites. A fuller version of this guidance may be found on the longer departmental ‘Style Guide’ in the undergraduate and postgraduate folders on Blackboard.

Primary sources
When you first refer to an item in a footnote, provide the full reference. On the second and every succeeding reference to the same item, use a short title.

Footnote examples:

Manuscripts:
Home Intelligence Report, 16-23 July 1941, INF1/292, The National Archives: Public Record Office, Kew.
George Whitefield to Howel Harris (28 December 1738), The Trevecka Letters, Calvinist Methodist Archive, National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth.

Printed:
Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum: The History of the Danes, ed. Karsten Friis-Jensen and trans Peter Fisher, 2 vols (Oxford, 2015), II: 86-7.

Bibliography examples:

CAB and FCO files, The National Archives: Public Record Office, Kew.
School log books 1939-45, Ceredigion Museum, Aberystwyth.
Daily Mirror, February-August 1910, National Library of Wales.
J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study (London, 1902).
Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum: The History of the Danes, ed. Karsten Friis-Jensen and trans. Peter Fisher, 2 vols (Oxford, 2015).

Footnote

When you first refer to an item in a footnote, provide the full reference, including:

  • Author name (first name or initial first, then surname)
  • full title
  • place and date of publication (in brackets)
  • page number(s) (use p. to reference a single page; pp. to reference a range of pages

On the second and every succeeding reference to the same item, use a short title: surname, short version of the article or book title, and page number.  

Examples:
Full reference:
1Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic: Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century England (London, 1971), p. 94.

Short title:
4Thomas, Religion and Magic, pp. 106-20.

 

Bibliography:

Examples:

Books (single author, or edited collection with single editor)
Thomas, Keith, Religion and the Decline of Magic: Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century England (London, 1971).
Smith, Harold J., ed., War and Social Change (London, 1986).

Ebooks
Jacobs, Nicolas, Early Welsh Gnomic and Nature Poetry (London, 2012). Google ebook.

Books (multiple authors or edited)
Lambert, Peter, and Schofield, Phillipp, eds, Making History: An introduction to the history and practices of a discipline (Abingdon, 2004).

When you first refer to an item in a footnote, provide the full reference as in the bibliography but in a slightly different order, and with commas rather than full stops in between, as follows:

  • name of author of article (first name or initials, surname)
  • article title (plain text, in single quotation marks)
  • title of journal (in italics)
  • volume number of journal (in Arabic or roman numerals)
  • year of publication (in brackets) (place of publication NOT required for articles)
  • page number(s) (use p. to reference a single page; pp. to reference a range of pages)

On the second and every succeeding reference to the same item, use a short title: surname, short version of the article or book title, and page number.  

Footnote examples:

First reference:
1 A. G. Hopkins, ‘Economic imperialism in West Africa: Lagos 1880- 1893’, Economic History Review, xxi (1968), p. 590.

Short title:
6 Hopkins, ‘Economic imperialism’, p. 600.

Bibliography:

Layout for articles in journals follows the same basic rules as books, but with a few additions:

  • name of author of article (surname, first name or initials)
  • article title (plain text, in single quotation marks)
  • title of journal (in italics)
  • volume number of journal (in Arabic or roman numerals)
  • year of publication (in brackets) (place of publication NOT required for articles)
  • full page reference for article

Example:

Hopkins, A. G. ‘Economic imperialism in West Africa: Lagos 1880- 92’, Economic History Review, xxi (1968), 580-606.

 

Footnotes:

When you first refer to an item in a footnote, provide the full reference as in the bibliography but in a slightly different order, and with commas rather than full stops in between.

On the second and every succeeding reference to the same item, use a short title: surname, short version of the article or book title, and page number.  

Example: footnote for article in edited collection

Sarah Hanley, ‘Family and state in early modern France: the marriage pact’, in Connecting Spheres: Women in the Western World, 1500 to the Present, eds Marilyn J. Boxer and Jean H. Quataert (New York, 1987), p. 61.

Bibliography:

Layout for chapters in edited collections* again follows the same basic rules, as follows:

  • name of author of chapter (surname, first name or initials)
  • chapter title (plain text, in single quotation marks)
  • editor name(s) (surname, first name or intials)
  • title of edited collection (in italics)
  • place and year of publication
  • full page reference for chapter

*Nb., if you are listing more than one chapter from the same edited collection in your bibliography it is best practice to list the edited collection only, not the separate chapters.

Example: bibliography entry for article/chapter in edited collection:

Hanley, Sarah, ‘Family and state in early modern France: the marriage pact’, in Boxer, Marilyn J., and Quataert, Jean H., eds., Connecting Spheres: Women in the Western World, 1500 to the Present (New York, 1987), pp. 61-72.

 

Webpags and websites:

Give a full document description including date, the url of the webpage on which the document appears, and the date it was accessed.

Example:

Flora Malein, ‘Can history help us in the COVID-19 epidemic?’, March 2020, British Society for the History of Medicine website, https://bshm.org.uk/can-history-help-us-in-the-covid-19-epidemic/, accessed 18 September 2020.

Theses:

Harvey, I. M. W., ‘Popular revolt and unrest in England during the second half of the reign of Henry VI’, (PhD, Aberystwyth University, 1988).

Information Studies - Harvard Style

The quiz at the end of this guide is based on the examples given here but there are different versions of Harvard so always use your department’s guidance.

Information Studies students can find their Departmental referencing guide on Blackboard Learn Ultra - Study Skills area.  (A copy is also available below).

Use each tab to discover examples of how to correctly acknowledge different sources in your assignments.

When referencing an article found in a print journal, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)  Tip: If multiple authors - follow the guidance on the Book (print) tab.
  • (Year of publication) (in round brackets).
  • 'Title of article', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of journal, (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for).
  • Issue information, that is, volume (not in brackets)  and, where applicable, issue number, month or season (all in round brackets).
    • For example: 
      • Just volume number (no issue number):  Innovation, 19, pp. 18-27. 
      • Volume number and issue number:   International Information and Library Review, 32 (1), pp. 39-62.
  • Page reference.

Example: Print journal article

In-text citation

(Marcella, 2001)

Marcella (2001) investigated....

If a direct quote:

'A significant proportion of respondents stated that they had used electronic networks in accessing European information in the past' (Marcella, 2001, p.509).

Reference list

Marcella, R. (2001) ’The need for European Union information amongst women in the United Kingdom: results of a survey', Journal of Documentation, 57 (4) pp. 492-518.

When referencing an article, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the article', (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the journal (in italics - ensure the first letter of each word is a capital except for the linking words)
  • Issue information - volume (issue number)  (all in round brackets - except the volume)
  • Page reference
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi) if available.
 
Example: Online journal article

In -text citation

(Zimerman, 2012)

Zimerman discusses in detail the review of the literature on digital natives (2012) ...

Reference list

Zimerman, M. (2012) 'Digital natives, searching behavior and the library', New Library World, 113 (3/4), pp. 174-201. doi: 10.1108/03074801211218552.

When referencing a printed book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

 

Example: Book (one author)

In -text citation

(Affelt, 2019)

Affelt (2019) suggests that ...

If a direct quote:

If a direct quotation (include the page number):

'It is unlikely that those sharing fake news content are carefully considering their audience' (Affellt, 2019, p. 35).

Reference list

Affelt, A. (2019) All that's not fit to print. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

 

Example: Book (two or three authors) 
If the work has two or three authors, include all names in your citation.

In-text citation

(Pears and Shields, 2013)

According to Pears and Shields (2013)...

Reference list

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. London: Palgrave.

 

Example: Book (four or more authors)

If a book has four or more authors, only the first author's name should be listed in-text followed by 'et al.', meaning 'and others'. However, all authors should be listed in the reference list in the order they are credited in the original work.

You must place a full stop at the end of al. and italicise: et al. 

In-text citation

(Dym et al. 2009)

This was discussed by Dym et al. (2009)…

Reference list

Dym, C.L., Little, P., Orwin, E.J., and Spjut, R.E. (2009) Engineering design: a project-based introduction. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 

 

Example: Book (no author)

You may come across a book with no recognisable author. When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year.  Use the first few words if the title is too long. 

To be made up of:

  • Title (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in round brackets).
  • Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition).
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (where relevant).

In-text citation:

(Medicine in old age, 1985)

It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved (Medicine in old age, 1985)…

Reference list:

Medicine in old age (1985) 2nd ed. London: British Medical Association.

If the ebook has page numbers and publication details, then use the book (print) format to reference.

Follow this order;

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (if available).

See the  'Book (print)' examples on the previous tab.

If you refer to a chapter of a book by a contributor in an edited book, you cite just the contributor, not the editor.

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • In
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Edited by (first name, last name)
  • Page range
  • Place of publication: publisher

 

in-text citation

(Briassoulis, 2004)

Research by Briassoulis (2004) highlighted the fact...

 

Reference list

Briassoulis, H., (2004) 'Crete: endowed by nature, privileged by geography, threatened by tourism?' in Coastal mass tourism: diversification and sustainable development in Southern Europe. Edited by Bill Bramwell, pp. 48-62. Clevedon: Channel View.

 

If there is more than one contributing author who wrote the chapter, you must list all authors in the reference list at the end of your work e.g. Jones, A., Jones, B. and Jones, C., (2010) etc...

 

Government publications could be Command Papers (Green and White papers) or Departmental publications.

Command Papers

When referencing, follow this order:

  • Name of committee or Royal Commission
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Paper number (in brackets)

If you have viewed the online version, follow this order:

  • Name of committee or Royal Commission
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Paper number (in round brackets after title)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)
 
Example: Command Papers

In -text citation

Summarised advice on archives (Lord Chancellor's Department, 1999; Ministry of Justice, 2013) ...

Reference list

Lord Chancellor's Department (1999) Government policy on archives. London: The Stationery Office (Cm 4516).

Ministry of Justice (2013) Transforming rehabilitation: a strategy for reform (Cm 8619). Available at: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/228744/8619.pdf (Accessed: 31 July 2023).

 

Departmental publications

When referencing, follow this order:

  • Name of government department
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Series (in brackets) - if applicable

If you have viewed the online version, follow this order:

  • Name of government department
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date)
     
Example: Departmental publications

In -text citation

Summarised advice on inequalities (Ministry of Justice, 2020) ...

Reference list

Ministry of Justice (2020) Knife and offensive weapon sentencing statistics: July to September 2020. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/knife-and-offensive-weapon-sentencing-statistics-july-to-september-2020 (Accessed: 31 July 2023).

 

When referencing a blog, use this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of message', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of website, (in italics).
  • Day/month of posted message
  • [Blog].
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: Blog

In-text citation:

(Marikar, 2018)

Marikar (2018) suggested...

Reference list:

Marikar, S. (2018) ‘The First Family of Memes', The New Yorker, 1 October. [Blog]. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/10/01/the-first-family-of-memes (Accessed: 22 January 2019). 

To reference a thesis or dissertaion, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, then intitials)
  • Year of submission. (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.

If viewed online, add:

  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

Example:

In-text citation:

(Brennan, 1993)

Research by Brennan (1993) suggests that…

Reference list:

Brennan, S.M. (1993) Aspects of Equine Pituitary Abnormality. MSc. Aberystwyth University. 

When referencing conference papers, follow this order:

Print

  • Author. (Surname, and then initials)
  • (year of publication) (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’,
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • Page numbers.

Example

In-text citation:
(Jones, 1994)

Jones (1994) says ...

Reference list:

Jones, J. (1994) ‘Polymer blends based on compact disc scrap’, Proceedings of the Annual Technical Conference – Society of Plastics Engineers. San Francisco, 1–5 May. Brookfield, CT: Society of Plastics Engineers, 2865–7.

 

Online conference papers

  • Author. (Surname, then initials)
  • (year of publication) (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’ (single quotation marks)
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Publisher
  • [Online].
  • Available at URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example

In-text citation

(Jones, 1999) 

Jones (1999) says ...

Reference list

Jones, D. (1999) ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. [Online] Available at: http://www.bigbusinesses.co.uk/jonesd (Accessed: 15 April 2018).

When referencing standards, use this order:

  • Organisation.
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Number:
  • Title of the standard, (in italics)
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher. 

Example: Standards

In-text citation:
(BSI 8001, 2017)

BSI 8001 (2017) says ...

Reference list:
British Standards Institution (2017) BS 8001: Framework for implementing the principles of the circular economy in organizations: Guide, London: British Standards Institution. 

Note: if you find the standards online, add the following after the title:

  • [Online],
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

For example:

British Standards Institution (2005) BS EN ISO 17707: Footwear. Test Methods for Outsoles. Flex Resistance, British Standards, [Online]. Available at https://bsol-bsigroup-com. libezproxy.open.ac.uk/en/Bsol-ItemDetail-Page/?pid=000000000030105824 (Accessed 10 May 2017).

There are many different versions of maps. Look through the following examples and follow the order provided.

Printed map 

Ordnance Survey map

  • Ordnance Survey
  • (Year) (in brackets)
  • Title of map, (in italics)
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Map/sheet number,
  • Scale.
  • Map series if appropriate.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example: 

In text citation:

(Ordnance Survey, 2016)

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (2016) Aberystwyth and Machynlleth. Ed C. 135, 1:50 000. Landranger series. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Online maps

Digimap

  • Map publisher
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Title/description of map. (in italics)
  • Scale.
  • Source (Map Product).
  • Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap
  • (Created on date).

Example:

In-text citation

(Ordnance Survey, 2011)

Reference list

Ordnance Survey, (2011) Aberystwyth University: Gogerddan Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap. [online] Available at: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/  (Accessed 31 August 2011).

Google Earth Maps

  • Google Earth version (if applicable),
  • (Year data released) (in brackets)
  • Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. (in italics)
  • Data set (if applicable).
  • [online]
  • Available: URL
  • (Accessed date). 

Example:

In-text citation
(Google Earth, 2008)

Reference list

Google Earth 6.0. (2008)  Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D map, Buildings data layer [online] Available at: http://www.google.com/earth/index/html  (Accessed 23 September 2019).

 

In-text citation

IBISWorld (2018) noted problems in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

IBISWorld (2018) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed 2 November 2019).

Manuscripts

When referencing, follow this order;

  • Author
  • Year (in round brackets)
  • Title of manuscript (in italics)
  • Date (if available)
  • Name of collection containing manuscript and reference number
  • Location of manuscript in archive or repository

If author not known, follow this order;

  • Title of manuscript (in italics)
  • Year (if known, in round brackets)
  • Name of collection containing manuscript and reference number
  • Location of manuscript in archive or repository

 

Parish registers

When referencing, follow this order;

  • Name of person (in single quotation marks)
  • Year of event (in round brackets)
  • Baptism, marriage or burial of ...
  • Full name of person (forenames, surname)
  • Day/month/year of event
  • Title of register (in italics)
     

Military records

When referencing, follow this order;

  • Name of person (in single quotation marks)
  • Year of publication (in round brackets)
  • Title of publication (in italics)
  • Publication details

 

If further help is needed on referencing primary sources, the Department refer students to The National Archives guidance:
https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/help-with-your-research/citing-records-national-archives/

 

When referencing an article from a print newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year published) (in brackets)
  • 'Article title'. (in single quotation marks).
  • Newspaper, (in italics)
  • Page(s).

Example: print newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Browne, 2010)

Browne (2010) mentions...

Reference list

Browne, R. (2010) 'This brainless patient is no dummy'. Sydney Morning Herald, 21 March, 45.

When referencing an article from an online newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • 'Title of article'. (in single quotation marks)
  • Newspaper title. (in italics)
  • Date published. (day and month)
  • Available at:URL
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: online newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Ough, 2015)

Ough (2015) questions...

Reference list:

Ough, T. (2014) 'It's so easy to focus on what you can't do after a stroke, rather than what you can'. The Times. 31 December. Available at: https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/GYEXJD027471504/TTDA?u=uniaber&sid=TTDA&xid=f84faf80 (Accessed 23 March 2019).

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (individual author/organisation)
  • Author (Surname, followed by initials) OR organisation
  • (Year that the site was published/last updated) (in brackets)
  • Title of the webpage (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

(International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 2019)

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (2023) identifies the ...

Reference list

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (2023) A Supportive Environment for Libraries. Available at: https://www.ifla.org/units/supportive-environment-for-libraries (Accessed: 25 July 2023).

 

Example: Web page (no author)

Replace what would be the author with the title. 

  • Title of web page (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

A rewilding project (Farmers 'misunderstand' Wales rewilding project, 2019) has been met...

Reference list

Farmers 'misunderstand' Wales rewilding project (2019) Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-49666610 (Accessed: 23 September 2019). 

 

Example: Web page (no date)

If you cannot identify the publication date of a web page, cite it using n.d. (no date).

In-text citation

(Allen n.d.)

Reference list

Allen, J. n.d. No Shopping for A Month: What I Learned From My Month in Exile. Available at: https://www.stayathomemum.com.au/my-money/money-saving-tips/no-shopping-for-a-month-what-i-learned-from-my-month-in-exile/ (Accessed: 24 March 2020).

 

If you can't find the information required  - such as author and/or date, you should indicate any missing information clearly in your reference list, using the page title when no author is named and ‘n.d.’ when no date is available.

When referencing your own work, use this order:

  •   Name. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  •   Year of submission (in round brackets)
  •   'Title of work', (in single quotation marks).
  •    Module code: module title (in italics).
  •    Institution
  •    Unpublished essay/assignment

 Example: Student's own work

In-text citation:

(Smith, 2019)

The assignment written looked at water quality (Smith, 2018)  with the environmental impact...

Reference list:

Smith, S. (2019) ‘Water quality in Welsh rivers', MM56340: Business Impacts. Town University. Unpublished essay.

A document found on the web can be a government report or policy documents. When referencing an online document, follow this order:

  • Author (Surname, then initials). 
  • (Year of publication if given)  (in brackets)
  • Title of document (in italics)
  • [Online],
  • Place of publication,
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example: online document

In-text citation:

(Munafò, 2019)

Munafò (2019) states …
 

Reference list:
Munafò, M. (2019)  Scientific Ecosystems and Research Reproducibility. [Online] Royal London, Society of Biology.  Available at: https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/groups-and-committees/asg/asg-membership/animal-science-meetings/animal-science-meeting-2019-report (Accessed: 23 March 2019).

When referencing an image found in a book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

If the image is taken from another work (e.g. book) it should be treated and cited as part of that book (print).  Reference an image in a book using the book format, adding the page number to the citation.

Example: Print image

In-text citation:

(Campbell et al, 2015)

Campbell et al. (2015) have clearly illustrated how a plant cell functions.

Note: If you were to include this in your essay, the caption and citation below the image would look similar to this:

Figure 7. The functions and flow of genetic information within a plant cell (Campbell et al., 2015, pp. 282-283).

Reference list:

Campbell, N.A., Reece, Jane B., Urry, Lisa A., Cain, Michael L., Wasserman, Steven A., Minorsky, Peter V., Jackson, Robert B. (2014) Biology : a global approach. Tenth edition. Boston: Pearson.

When referencing an online image, follow this order:

  • Person responsible for the image. (Surname, followed by initials) OR Corporate Author.

  • Year published (in brackets)

  • Title/description. (in italics)

  • [format]  (image/photograph etc.)

  • Available at: URL

  • (Accessed Day Month Year). (in brackets)

Example: Online image

In-text citation:

(Rana, 2013)

The image by Rana (2013) depicts...

Reference list:

Rana, S. (2013) Library Levitation. [image] Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/saharranaphotography/13178176575/  [Accessed 23 March 2020].

Follow this order;

  • Author of post
  • Year posted (in round brackets)
  • Title or description of post (in single quotation marks)
  • [Name of platform]
  • Day/month posted
  • Available at: URL (Accessed: date)

Example: Twitter

In-text citation:

(Aberystwyth University, 2023)

Aberystwyth University (2023) are ...

Reference list:

Aberystwyth University (2023) 'Scientists are in Switzerland investigating the increase in rock cover.' [Twitter] 6 July. Available at: https://twitter.com/AberUni/status/1676496158691082248 (Accessed: 6 July 2023).

A few points to remember when using et al.:

  • Regardless of source type and format (book, e-book, article, conference papers, online newspaper article etc.), useet al. if the work has four authors or more.
  • Et al. is the Latin term for 'and others'.
  • Et al. should be italicised when used in a written text.
  • Given that ‘et al.’ is a shortening it is important to remember the full stop at the end of ‘al.’ to indicate that.
  • Include the surname of the first author only followed by ‘et al.’ in the in-text citation surrounded by brackets 
    • (First author surname et al., + year of publication: + p. with the page number where the quote can be found)
    • (Huws et al., 2013, p.14)
  • Don't use et al. in the reference list - all the authors' names must be included in your reference list, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. 

Example

In-text citation

Torrington et al. (2014) demonstrated...

(Torrington et al. 2014)

Quote:

" Aside from storage, the rumen is also a fermentation vat." (Huws et al., 2013, p.14).

 

Reference
Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C. (2014) Human resource management. 9th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

International English Centre - Harvard Style

The quiz at the end of this guide is based on the examples given here but there are different versions of Harvard so always use your department’s guidance.

Use each tab to discover examples of how to correctly acknowledge different sources in your assignments.

When referencing a blog, use this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated. (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of message', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of website, (in italics).
  • Day/month of posted message
  • [Blog].
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: Blog

In-text citation:

(Marikar, 2018)

Marikar (2018) suggested...

Reference list:

Marikar, S. (2018). ‘The First Family of Memes', The New Yorker, 1 October. [Blog]. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/10/01/the-first-family-of-memes (Accessed: 22 January 2019). 

To reference a thesis or dissertaion, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, then intitials)
  • Year of submission. (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.

If viewed online, add:

  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

Example:

In-text citation:

(Brennan, 1993)

Research by Brennan (1993) suggests that…

Reference list:

Brennan, S.M. (1993) Aspects of Equine Pituitary Abnormality. MSc. Aberystwyth University. 

When referencing conference papers, follow this order:

Print

  • Author. (Surname, and then initials)
  • (year of publication). (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’,
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • Page numbers.

Example

In-text citation:
(Jones, 1994)

Jones (1994) says ...

Reference list:

Jones, J. (1994). ‘Polymer blends based on compact disc scrap’, Proceedings of the Annual Technical Conference – Society of Plastics Engineers. San Francisco, 1–5 May. Brookfield, CT: Society of Plastics Engineers, 2865–7.

 

Online conference papers

  • Author. (Surname, then initials)
  • (year of publication) (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’ (single quotation marks)
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Publisher
  • [Online].
  • Available at URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example

In-text citation

(Jones, 1999) 

Jones (1999) says ...

Reference list

Jones, D. (1999) ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. [Online] Available at: http://www.bigbusinesses.co.uk/jonesd (Accessed: 15 April 2018).

When referencing standards, use this order:

  • Organisation.
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Number:
  • Title of the standard, (in italics)
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher. 

Example: Standards

In-text citation:
(BSI 8001, 2017)

BSI 8001 (2017) says ...

Reference list:
British Standards Institution (2017). BS 8001: Framework for implementing the principles of the circular economy in organizations: Guide, London: British Standards Institution. 

Note: if you find the standards online, add the following after the title:

  • [Online],
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

For example:

British Standards Institution (2005) BS EN ISO 17707: Footwear. Test Methods for Outsoles. Flex Resistance, British Standards, [Online]. Available at https://bsol-bsigroup-com. libezproxy.open.ac.uk/en/Bsol-ItemDetail-Page/?pid=000000000030105824 (Accessed 10 May 2017).

There are many different versions of maps. Look through the following examples and follow the order provided.

Printed map 

Ordnance Survey map

  • Ordnance Survey
  • (Year). (in brackets)
  • Title of map, (in italics)
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Map/sheet number,
  • Scale.
  • Map series if appropriate.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example: 

In text citation:

(Ordnance Survey, 2016)

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (2016). Aberystwyth and Machynlleth. Ed C. 135, 1:50 000. Landranger series. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Online maps

Digimap

  • Map publisher
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title/description of map. (in italics)
  • Scale.
  • Source (Map Product).
  • Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap
  • (Created on date).

Example:

In-text citation

(Ordnance Survey, 2011)

Reference list

Ordnance Survey, (2011). Aberystwyth University: Gogerddan Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap. [online] Available at: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/  (Accessed 31 August 2011).

Google Earth Maps

  • Google Earth version (if applicable),
  • (Year data released). (in brackets)
  • Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. (in italics)
  • Data set (if applicable).
  • [online]
  • Available: URL
  • (Accessed date). 

Example:

In-text citation
(Google Earth, 2008)

Reference list

Google Earth 6.0. (2008).  Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D map, Buildings data layer [online] Available at: http://www.google.com/earth/index/html  (Accessed 23 September 2019).

Refinitiv Workspace is a financial database.

Follow this order:

  • Publishing organisation
  • Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets) this is often the current year
  • Title of extract (in single quotation marks) or use the heading at the top of the screen that indicates what the data is or alternatively write your search of how you obtained the data eg. 'Search results for...'
  • Available at: URL  (if available)
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text citation

Refinitiv (2023) noted an increase in 50% in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

Refinitiv (2023) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed: 2 November 2022).

In-text citation

IBISWorld (2018) noted problems in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

IBISWorld (2018) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed 2 November 2019).

When referencing an article from a print newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year published). (in brackets)
  • 'Article title'. (in single quotation marks).
  • Newspaper, (in italics)
  • Page(s).

Example: print newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Browne, 2010)

Browne (2010) mentions...

Reference list

Browne, R. (2010). 'This brainless patient is no dummy'. Sydney Morning Herald, 21 March, 45.

When referencing an article from an online newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • 'Title of article'. (in single quotation marks)
  • Newspaper title. (in italics)
  • Date published. (day and month)
  • Available at:URL
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: online newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Ough, 2015)

Ough (2015) questions...

Reference list:

Ough, T. (2014). 'It's so easy to focus on what you can't do after a stroke, rather than what you can'. The Times. 31 December. Available at: https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/GYEXJD027471504/TTDA?u=uniaber&sid=TTDA&xid=f84faf80 (Accessed 23 March 2019).

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (individual author/organisation)
  • Author (Surname, followed by initials) OR organisation
  • (Year that the site was published/last updated). (in brackets)
  • Title of the webpage (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

(Environment Agency, 2019)

The Environment Agency (2019) identifies the ...

Reference list

Environment Agency (2019). Swim healthy. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/swim-healthy-leaflet/swim-healthy (Accessed: 16 January 2020).

 

Example: Web page (no author)

Replace what would be the author with the title. 

  • Title of web page (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

A rewilding project (2019) has been met...

Reference list

Farmers 'misunderstand' Wales rewilding project. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-49666610 (Accessed: 23 September 2019). 

 

Example: Web page (no date)

If you cannot identify the publication date of a web page, cite it using n.d. (no date).

In-text citation

(Allen n.d.)

Reference list

Allen, J. n.d. No Shopping for A Month: What I Learned From My Month in Exile. Available at: https://www.stayathomemum.com.au/my-money/money-saving-tips/no-shopping-for-a-month-what-i-learned-from-my-month-in-exile/ (Accessed: 24 March 2020).

 

If you can't find the information required  - such as author and/or date, you should indicate any missing information clearly in your reference list, using the page title when no author is named and ‘n.d.’ when no date is available.

When referencing your own work, use this order:

  •   Name. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  •   Year of submission. (in round brackets)
  •   'Title of work', (in single quotation marks).
  •    Module code: module title (in italics).
  •    Institution
  •    Unpublished essay/assignment

 Example: Student's own work

In-text citation:

(Smith, 2019)

The assignment written looked at water quality (Smith, 2018)  with the environmental impact...

Reference list:

Smith, S. (2019). ‘Water quality in Welsh rivers', MM56340: Business Impacts. Town University. Unpublished essay.

A document found on the web can be a government report or policy documents. When referencing an online document, follow this order:

  • Author (Surname, then initials). 
  • (Year of publication if given).  (in brackets)
  • Title of document (in italics)
  • [Online],
  • Place of publication,
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example: online document

In-text citation:

(Munafò, 2019)

Munafò (2019) states …
 

Reference list:
Munafò, M. (2019).  Scientific Ecosystems and Research Reproducibility. [Online] Royal London, Society of Biology.  Available at: https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/groups-and-committees/asg/asg-membership/animal-science-meetings/animal-science-meeting-2019-report (Accessed: 23 March 2019).

When referencing an image found in a book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

If the image is taken from another work (e.g. book) it should be treated and cited as part of that book (print).  Reference an image in a book using the book format, adding the page number to the citation.

Example: Print image

In-text citation:

(Campbell et al, 2015)

Campbell et al. (2015) have clearly illustrated how a plant cell functions.

Note: If you were to include this in your essay, the caption and citation below the image would look similar to this:

Figure 7. The functions and flow of genetic information within a plant cell (Campbell et al., 2015, pp. 282-283).

Reference list:

Campbell, N.A., Reece, Jane B., Urry, Lisa A., Cain, Michael L., Wasserman, Steven A., Minorsky, Peter V., Jackson, Robert B. (2014). Biology : a global approach. Tenth edition. Boston: Pearson.

When referencing an online image, follow this order:

  • Person responsible for the image. (Surname, followed by initials) OR Corporate Author.

  • Year published. (in brackets)

  • Title/description. (in italics)

  • [format]  (image/photograph etc.)

  • Available at: URL

  • (Accessed Day Month Year). (in brackets)

Example: Online image

In-text citation:

(Rana, 2013)

The image by Rana (2013) depicts...

Reference list:

Rana, S. (2013). Library Levitation. [image] Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/saharranaphotography/13178176575/  [Accessed 23 March 2020].

A few points to remember when using et al.:

  • Regardless of source type and format (book, e-book, article, conference papers, online newspaper article etc.), useet al.’ if the work has three authors or more.
  • Et al. is the Latin term for 'and others'.
  • Et al. should be italicised when used in a written text.
  • Given that ‘et al.’ is a shortening it is important to remember the full stop at the end of ‘al.’ to indicate that.
  • Include the surname of the first author only followed by ‘et al.’ in the in-text citation surrounded by brackets 
    • (First author surname et al., + year of publication: + p. with the page number where the quote can be found)
    • (Huws et al., 2013: p.14)
  • Don't use et al. in the reference list - all the authors' names must be included in your reference list, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. 

Example

In-text citation

Torrington et al. (2014) demonstrated...

(Torrington et al. 2014)

Quote:

" Aside from storage, the rumen is also a fermentation vat." (Huws et al., 2013: p.14).

 

Reference
Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C. (2014). Human resource management. 9th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

When referencing an article found in a print journal, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in round brackets).
  • 'Title of article', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of journal, (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for).
  • Issue information, that is, volume (not in brackets)  and, where applicable, issue number, month or season (all in round brackets).
    • For example: 
      • Just volume number (no issue number):  Animal Science, 33, 44-50.
      • Volume number and issue number:   The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 24 (2), 365-373. 
  • Page reference.

Example: Print journal article

In-text citation

(Reimers and Eftestol, 2012)

Reimers and Eftestol (2012) investigated....

Reference list

Reimers, E., and Eftestol, S. (2012). 'Response behaviors of Svalbard reindeer towards humans and humans disguised as polar bears on Edgeoya'. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 44, 483-489.

When referencing an article, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the article', (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the journal (in italics - ensure the first letter of each word is a capital except for the linking words)
  • Issue information - volume (issue number)  (all in round brackets - except the volume)
  • Page reference
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi) if available.
 
Example: Online journal article

In -text citation

(Zimerman, 2012)

Zimerman discusses in detail the review of the literature on digital natives (2012) ...

Reference list

Zimerman, M. (2012). 'Digital natives, searching behavior and the library', New Library World, 113(3/4), 174-201. doi: 10.1108/03074801211218552.

If you refer to a chapter of a book by a contributor in an edited book, you cite just the contributor, not the editor.

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • In
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Edited by (first name, last name)
  • Page range
  • Place of publication: publisher

 

in-text citation

(Briassoulis, 2004)

Research by Briassoulis (2004) highlighted the fact...

 

Reference list

Briassoulis, H., (2004). 'Crete: endowed by nature, privileged by geography, threatened by tourism?' in Coastal mass tourism: diversification and sustainable development in Southern Europe. Edited by Bill Bramwell, p. 48-62. Clevedon: Channel View.

 

If there is more than one contributing author who wrote the chapter, you must list all authors in the reference list at the end of your work e.g. Jones, A., Jones, B. and Jones, C., (2010) etc...

 

If the ebook has page numbers and publication details, then use the book format to reference.

Follow this order;

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (if available).

See the Harvard style 'Book' examples on the previous tab.

When referencing a printed book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

 

Example: Book (one author)

In -text citation

(Affelt, 2019)

Affelt (2019) suggests that ...

Reference list

Affelt, A. (2019). All that's not fit to print. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

 

Example: Book (two authors) 
If the work has two authors, include all names in your citation.

In-text citation

(Pears and Shields, 2013)

According to Pears and Shields (2013)...

Reference list

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013). Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. London: Palgrave.

 

Please note that the following example is drawn from the referencing guidelines for the Department of International Politics. Whilst this example will be helpful to you in completing the quiz, it must be remembered that other departments using the Harvard referencing style may use 'et.al.' differently. When writing your assignments, it is important to adhere to the guidelines outlined in your department's handbooks on referencing.

 

Example: Book (three or more authors)

If a book has three or more authors, only the first author's name should be listed in-text followed by 'et al.', meaning 'and others'. However, all authors should be listed in the reference list in the order they are credited in the original work.

You must place a full stop at the end of al. and italicise: et al. 

In-text citation

(Dym et al. 2009)

This was discussed by Dym et al. (2009)…

Reference list

Dym, C.L., Little, P., Orwin, E.J., and Spjut, R.E. (2009). Engineering design: a project-based introduction. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 

 

Example: Book (no author)

You may come across a book with no recognisable author. When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year.  Use the first few words if the title is too long. 

To be made up of:

  • Title (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in round brackets).
  • Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition).
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (where relevant).

In-text citation:

(Medicine in old age, 1985)

It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved (Medicine in old age, 1985)…

Reference list:

Medicine in old age (1985) 2nd ed. London: British Medical Association.

International Politics - Footnote/Endnote Style

(Please note: this information is taken from the Writing and Referencing in InterPol handbook which can be found here)

 

Using the Footnote/ Endnote System

There is much greater similarity between the two components of the footnote-endnote system than is the case with the Harvard/ in-text system.  The reference in the bibliography will normally be the same as the reference in the footnote/ endnote but without the need to refer to a specific page reference.
  
First component

In the footnote/endnote system, the references are marked by a superscript number in the text and placed either at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the essay (endnotes).
 
For example, in the text of your essay a reference number, normally superscripted, should be added:
...in such a system war is said to be inevitable.1

Please note that this reference number is placed after the full-stop not before. At the bottom of the page or the end of the essay should appear a list corresponding to the reference numbers in the text. References should be in full the first time they are mentioned.
 
Thereafter the author's name and an abbreviated title should be used (do not use op. cit. or ibid. as this can cause confusion if the text is revised later). For example:
Hence it is the system structure which is claimed to be the crucial variable.2
 
 
Second component
The second component of the footnote/endnote system is a complete list of references given at the end of the essay, arranged in alphabetical order of the author’s last name. You should provide a reference for all sources consulted during the researching and writing of the essay even if you have not cited them directly in the essay. The references should conform to the format given in the examples on the following pages.

Books
 
Footnote/ endnote: Waltz, K. Theory of International Politics (London, McGraw Hill, 1979), p. 117.
 
Bibliography: Waltz, K. Theory of International Politics (London, McGraw Hill, 1979).

Chapters in edited volumes
 
Footnote/ endnote:  Grieco, J. 'Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation', in Neorealism and Neoliberalism: the Contemporary Debate, edited by David Baldwin (New York, Columbia University Press, 1993), p. 126.
 
Bibliography: Grieco, J. 'Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation', in Neorealism and Neoliberalism: the Contemporary Debate, edited by David Baldwin (New York, Columbia University Press, 1993), pp. 116-42.
 

Journal articles
 
Footnote/ endnote: Wendt, A. 'The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory', International Organization, 41 (1987) p. 49.
 
Bibliography: Wendt, A. 'The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory', International Organization, 41 (1987) pp. 35-70.
 
 

Referencing a document or publication produced by a Government, International Organisation, Corporation or NGO
 
Footnote/ endnote House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, ‘Cultural Diplomacy’ (London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1987), p. 7.
 
Bibliography: House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee, ‘Cultural Diplomacy’ (London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1987)
 
 

Referencing an article in a newspaper or magazine
 
Footnote/ endnote: Freedland, J. ‘For dictators, Britain does red carpet or carpet-bombing’. The Guardian (London), 1 March 2011, p. 17.
 
Bibliography: Freedland, J. ‘For dictators, Britain does red carpet or carpet-bombing’. The Guardian (London), 1 March 2011.
 
If you have accessed the article online, make this clear in the footnote/ endnote and in the bibliography: 
 
Freedland, J. ‘For dictators, Britain does red carpet or carpet-bombing’. The Guardian, 1 March 2011.  Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/mar/01/dictators-britain-armstrade-hypocrisy [Accessed 24 October 2011].
 
 

Referencing a television or radio broadcast
 
Same for footnote/ endnote and bibliography:
 
Panorama, BBC2, 30 January 2011, 20.00

Websites/Blogs/Twitter
 
Same for footnote/ endnote and bibliography:
 
BBC News, North Korea Country Profile. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/country_profiles/1131421.stm [Accessed 23 July 2011].
 
Davies, M. ‘IR Theory: Problem-Solving Theory Versus Critical Theory’, E-IR, 19 September 2014 [Blog], Available at: http://www.e-ir.info/2014/09/19/ir-theoryproblem-solving-theory-versus-critical-theory/ [Accessed 30 September 2014].
 
Obama, B. “We have to work together as a global community to tackle this global threat before it is too late.” – President Obama, 23 September 2014 [Twitter]. Available at: https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/514462253605609472 [Accessed 30 September 2014].
 

Referencing material accessed by an e-book reader (e.g. Kindle, etc.)

If page numbers are not available on ebook readers, use the chapters instead for indicating the location of a quoted section
 
For the footnote/ endnote and the bibliography, include the following information:

  • author name and initial  
  • title (in italics) 
  • the type of e-book version you accessed (two examples are the Kindle Edition version and the Adobe Digital Editions version). 
  • year (date of Kindle Edition) 
  • accessed day month year (the date you first accessed the ebook) 
  • the book’s DOI (digital object idenitifer) or where you downloaded the ebook from (if there is no DOI). 

 
For example: 
 
Smith, A, The Wealth of Nations (Kindle version, 2008). Accessed 20 August 2010 from Amazon.com.
 
Smith, A, The Wealth of Nations (Adobe Digital Editions version, 2008). Accessed 20 August 2010, doi:10.1036/007142363X.
 

Secondary Referencing 
 
Secondary referencing means referencing a book or article that you haven’t read yourself but which you have seen quoted in another person’s work.  When using the footnote/ endnote system, follow the following guidelines:
 
Enter a footnote or endnote citing the author you are quoting but make it clear that you have found the reference in another book.
 
For example:
 
Ninkovich, F. The Diplomacy of Ideas (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1981), p. 1, cited in Vaughan, J. Unconquerable Minds. The Failure of American and British Propaganda in the Middle East, 1945-1957 (Houndmills, Palgrave, 2005), p. 2.
 
In the bibliography, you would only enter the book in which you found the reference, in the case of the above example:
 
Vaughan, J. Unconquerable Minds. The Failure of American and British Propaganda in the Middle East, 1945-1957 (Houndmills, Palgrave, 2005).

Law - OSCOLA - Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities

Students of Law should refer to the OSCOLA 4th edition and its Quick Reference guide.  

This page provides examples of commonly cited sources.

This style uses footnote format for the in-text citations.  Full source details are listed bibliography in a slightly different format.

When referencing a printed book in a footnote, follow this order:

  • Author - in same form as in publication*
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition information, publisher, date (in brackets)
  • Page reference

If you are using an eBook, you should normally create a reference in the same way as if you were using the print version.  If it is published online only, you should follow the guidance for referencing websites as far as possible.

Examples: Book (one author)

Footnote citation

[1] Geoffrey Rivlin, First Steps in the Law (7th edn. OUP 2015) 76

[2] Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (first published 1651, Penguin 1985) 268

Bibliography

Hobbes, T. Leviathan (first published 1651, Penguin 1985)

Rivlin, G. First Steps in the Law (7th edn. OUP 2015)

When referencing a book chapter/contributions to edited collections follow this order:

  • Author name
  • Chapter title
  • in + editor(s) of the book
  • title of the book (in italics)
  • Publisher date (in brackets)
  • if pinpointing add page reference of pinpoint after a comma
Example: chapter from a book

In footnote:

Francis Rose, ‘The Evolution of the Species’ in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodger (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (OUP 2006), 54.

In bibliography:

Rose, Francis ‘The Evolution of the Species’ in Andrew Burrows and Alan Rodger (eds), Mapping the Law: Essays in Memory of Peter Birks (OUP 2006).

When referencing an article follow this order:

  • authors, first name/initials followed by surname
  • article title 'in single quotation marks'
  • date - [square brackets if this indicates volume], (round brackets if separate volume number)
  • journal title in abbreviated form (check Cardiff Index to Legal Abbreviations) with no full stops
  • page number of first page of article
  • if pinpointing add page reference of pinpoint after a comma
Example: Journal article

In footnote, with pinpoint:

JAG Griffith, 'The Common Law and the Political Constitution' (2001) 117 LQR 42, 64.

In bibliography:

Griffith, JAG. 'The Common Law and the Political Constitution' (2001) 117 LQR 42

Standard citation of law reports contain the following elements:

For cases before 2001/2002, include:

  • Party names
  • Date - Square brackets to denotes date is essential to locate report
  • Volume number
  • Abbreviation of law report
  • Page reference - first page of report
  • If pinpointing a specific quotation or passage
Examples:

Footnote:

[1] Johnson v Rea [1962] 1 QB 373

[2] Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co [1891] 1 QB 256, 262

Cases after 2001/2002 should contain the following elements:

  • Party names
  • Date
  • Neutral citation
  • Law report citation, including:
    • Date - square brackets if required to find report (i.e. annually repeating instead of consecutive volume numbers)
    • Volume number
    • Abbreviation of law report
    • Page reference - first page of report
    • If pinpointing a specific quotation or passage
Examples:

Footnote:

[1] Dingmar v Dingmar [2006] EWCA Civ 942; [2007] Ch.109 

[2] Callery v Gray [2001] EWCA Civ 1117, [2001] 1 WLR 2112 [42], [45]

In tables of cases:

If using many cases, organise into groups by jurisdication and alphabetise by first significant word in the citation.

For further guidance on citing case law including unreported cases and EU law, see the full OSCOLA Guide, pp.17-22

If all the information needed by the reader is included in your text, you do not need to provide a footnote to the legislation

Example: where no footnote is required

For example, this sentence in an essay would not require a footnote as it clearly indicates the legislation being discussed.

Section 63 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 established powers to remove persons attending or preparing for a rave

However, if you do not indicate in your writing the name of the Act or the relevant section, a footnote is required.

Example: footnote required

In an essay, the following sentence would require a footnote:

Legislation concerning raves has stated that '"music" includes sounds wholly or predominantly characterised by the emission of a succession of repetitive beats.' [1].

Footnotes citing legislation should include:

  • Short title of the Act, capitalising major words
  • Date with no comma between short title and date
  • Relevant sections and subsections as required to pinpoint
Example: primary legislation

Footnote:

[1] Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 s 63 (1)(b)

Table of legislation:

List legislation used in your assignment alphabetically by first significant word in the short title.

When referencing a webpage follow this order:

  • Author (in footnote, first name then surname; in bibliography surname, first name/initials).  If no author, cite organisation/institution responsible as author
  • Title of webpage/article in single quotation marks
  • Title of website, italicised,  and date (if available) in round brackets.
  • URL <in angled brackets>
  • accessed date.
Example: webpage

In footnote:

Sarah Cole, ‘Virtual Friend Fires Employee’ (Naked Law, 1 May 2009) <http://www.nakedlaw.com/2009/05/index.html> accessed 19 November 2009.

In bibliography:

Cole, Sarah, ‘Virtual Friend Fires Employee’ (Naked Law, 1 May 2009) <http://www.nakedlaw.com/2009/05/index.html> accessed 19 November 2009.

Lifelong Learning - Harvard Style

The quiz at the end of this guide is based on the examples given here but there are different versions of Harvard so always use your department’s guidance.

Use each tab to discover examples of how to correctly acknowledge different sources in your assignments.

When referencing a printed book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

 

Example: Book (one author)

In -text citation

(Affelt, 2019)

Affelt (2019) suggests that ...

Reference list

Affelt, A. (2019). All that's not fit to print. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.

 

Example: Book (two authors) 
If the work has two authors, include all names in your citation.

In-text citation

(Pears and Shields, 2013)

According to Pears and Shields (2013)...

Reference list

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013). Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. London: Palgrave.

 

Please note that the following example is drawn from the referencing guidelines for the Department of International Politics. Whilst this example will be helpful to you in completing the quiz, it must be remembered that other departments using the Harvard referencing style may use 'et.al.' differently. When writing your assignments, it is important to adhere to the guidelines outlined in your department's handbooks on referencing.

 

Example: Book (three or more authors)

If a book has three or more authors, only the first author's name should be listed in-text followed by 'et al.', meaning 'and others'. However, all authors should be listed in the reference list in the order they are credited in the original work.

You must place a full stop at the end of al. and italicise: et al. 

In-text citation

(Dym et al. 2009)

This was discussed by Dym et al. (2009)…

Reference list

Dym, C.L., Little, P., Orwin, E.J., and Spjut, R.E. (2009). Engineering design: a project-based introduction. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. 

 

Example: Book (no author)

You may come across a book with no recognisable author. When the name of an author or authoring body is not shown, cite the reference by its title and the year.  Use the first few words if the title is too long. 

To be made up of:

  • Title (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in round brackets).
  • Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition).
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (where relevant).

In-text citation:

(Medicine in old age, 1985)

It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved (Medicine in old age, 1985)…

Reference list:

Medicine in old age (1985) 2nd ed. London: British Medical Association.

If you refer to a chapter of a book by a contributor in an edited book, you cite just the contributor, not the editor.

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • In
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Edited by (first name, last name)
  • Page range
  • Place of publication: publisher

 

in-text citation

(Briassoulis, 2004)

Research by Briassoulis (2004) highlighted the fact...

 

Reference list

Briassoulis, H., (2004). 'Crete: endowed by nature, privileged by geography, threatened by tourism?' in Coastal mass tourism: diversification and sustainable development in Southern Europe. Edited by Bill Bramwell, p. 48-62. Clevedon: Channel View.

 

If there is more than one contributing author who wrote the chapter, you must list all authors in the reference list at the end of your work e.g. Jones, A., Jones, B. and Jones, C., (2010) etc...

 

If the ebook has page numbers and publication details, then use the book format to reference.

Follow this order;

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication) (in brackets)
  • Title (in italics)
  • Edition. (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: publisher.
  • Series and volume number (if available).

See the Harvard style 'Book' examples on the previous tab.

A few points to remember when using et al.:

  • Regardless of source type and format (book, e-book, article, conference papers, online newspaper article etc.), useet al.’ if the work has three authors or more.
  • Et al. is the Latin term for 'and others'.
  • Et al. should be italicised when used in a written text.
  • Given that ‘et al.’ is a shortening it is important to remember the full stop at the end of ‘al.’ to indicate that.
  • Include the surname of the first author only followed by ‘et al.’ in the in-text citation surrounded by brackets 
    • (First author surname et al., + year of publication: + p. with the page number where the quote can be found)
    • (Huws et al., 2013: p.14)
  • Don't use et al. in the reference list - all the authors' names must be included in your reference list, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. 

Example

In-text citation

Torrington et al. (2014) demonstrated...

(Torrington et al. 2014)

Quote:

" Aside from storage, the rumen is also a fermentation vat." (Huws et al., 2013: p.14).

 

Reference
Torrington, D., Hall, L., Taylor, S. and Atkinson, C. (2014). Human resource management. 9th ed. Harlow: Pearson.

When referencing an article found in a print journal, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in round brackets).
  • 'Title of article', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of journal, (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for).
  • Issue information, that is, volume (not in brackets)  and, where applicable, issue number, month or season (all in round brackets).
    • For example: 
      • Just volume number (no issue number):  Animal Science, 33, 44-50.
      • Volume number and issue number:   The Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 24 (2), 365-373. 
  • Page reference.

Example: Print journal article

In-text citation

(Reimers and Eftestol, 2012)

Reimers and Eftestol (2012) investigated....

Reference list

Reimers, E., and Eftestol, S. (2012). 'Response behaviors of Svalbard reindeer towards humans and humans disguised as polar bears on Edgeoya'. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 44, 483-489.

When referencing an article, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • 'Title of the article', (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the journal (in italics - ensure the first letter of each word is a capital except for the linking words)
  • Issue information - volume (issue number)  (all in round brackets - except the volume)
  • Page reference
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi) if available.
 
Example: Online journal article

In -text citation

(Zimerman, 2012)

Zimerman discusses in detail the review of the literature on digital natives (2012) ...

Reference list

Zimerman, M. (2012). 'Digital natives, searching behavior and the library', New Library World, 113(3/4), 174-201. doi: 10.1108/03074801211218552.

When referencing an image found in a book, follow this order:

  • Author/editor. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • Title. (in italics)
  • Edition (don't include if it's the first edition)
  • Place of publication: Publisher
  • Series and volume number (if available)

If the image is taken from another work (e.g. book) it should be treated and cited as part of that book (print).  Reference an image in a book using the book format, adding the page number to the citation.

Example: Print image

In-text citation:

(Campbell et al, 2015)

Campbell et al. (2015) have clearly illustrated how a plant cell functions.

Note: If you were to include this in your essay, the caption and citation below the image would look similar to this:

Figure 7. The functions and flow of genetic information within a plant cell (Campbell et al., 2015, pp. 282-283).

Reference list:

Campbell, N.A., Reece, Jane B., Urry, Lisa A., Cain, Michael L., Wasserman, Steven A., Minorsky, Peter V., Jackson, Robert B. (2014). Biology : a global approach. Tenth edition. Boston: Pearson.

When referencing an online image, follow this order:

  • Person responsible for the image. (Surname, followed by initials) OR Corporate Author.

  • Year published. (in brackets)

  • Title/description. (in italics)

  • [format]  (image/photograph etc.)

  • Available at: URL

  • (Accessed Day Month Year). (in brackets)

Example: Online image

In-text citation:

(Rana, 2013)

The image by Rana (2013) depicts...

Reference list:

Rana, S. (2013). Library Levitation. [image] Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/saharranaphotography/13178176575/  [Accessed 23 March 2020].

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (individual author/organisation)
  • Author (Surname, followed by initials) OR organisation
  • (Year that the site was published/last updated). (in brackets)
  • Title of the webpage (in italics)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

(Environment Agency, 2019)

The Environment Agency (2019) identifies the ...

Reference list

Environment Agency (2019). Swim healthy. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/swim-healthy-leaflet/swim-healthy (Accessed: 16 January 2020).

 

Example: Web page (no author)

Replace what would be the author with the title. 

  • Title of web page (in italics).
  • Year of publication (in brackets)
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed: date).

In text citation

A rewilding project (2019) has been met...

Reference list

Farmers 'misunderstand' Wales rewilding project. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-49666610 (Accessed: 23 September 2019). 

 

Example: Web page (no date)

If you cannot identify the publication date of a web page, cite it using n.d. (no date).

In-text citation

(Allen n.d.)

Reference list

Allen, J. n.d. No Shopping for A Month: What I Learned From My Month in Exile. Available at: https://www.stayathomemum.com.au/my-money/money-saving-tips/no-shopping-for-a-month-what-i-learned-from-my-month-in-exile/ (Accessed: 24 March 2020).

 

If you can't find the information required  - such as author and/or date, you should indicate any missing information clearly in your reference list, using the page title when no author is named and ‘n.d.’ when no date is available.

A document found on the web can be a government report or policy documents. When referencing an online document, follow this order:

  • Author (Surname, then initials). 
  • (Year of publication if given).  (in brackets)
  • Title of document (in italics)
  • [Online],
  • Place of publication,
  • Publisher.
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example: online document

In-text citation:

(Munafò, 2019)

Munafò (2019) states …
 

Reference list:
Munafò, M. (2019).  Scientific Ecosystems and Research Reproducibility. [Online] Royal London, Society of Biology.  Available at: https://www.rsb.org.uk/policy/groups-and-committees/asg/asg-membership/animal-science-meetings/animal-science-meeting-2019-report (Accessed: 23 March 2019).

When referencing your own work, use this order:

  •   Name. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  •   Year of submission. (in round brackets)
  •   'Title of work', (in single quotation marks).
  •    Module code: module title (in italics).
  •    Institution
  •    Unpublished essay/assignment

 Example: Student's own work

In-text citation:

(Smith, 2019)

The assignment written looked at water quality (Smith, 2018)  with the environmental impact...

Reference list:

Smith, S. (2019). ‘Water quality in Welsh rivers', MM56340: Business Impacts. Town University. Unpublished essay.

When referencing an article from a print newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • (Year published). (in brackets)
  • 'Article title'. (in single quotation marks).
  • Newspaper, (in italics)
  • Page(s).

Example: print newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Browne, 2010)

Browne (2010) mentions...

Reference list

Browne, R. (2010). 'This brainless patient is no dummy'. Sydney Morning Herald, 21 March, 45.

When referencing an article from an online newspaper, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials)
  • Year of publication. (in brackets)
  • 'Title of article'. (in single quotation marks)
  • Newspaper title. (in italics)
  • Date published. (day and month)
  • Available at:URL
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: online newspaper article

In-text citation:

(Ough, 2015)

Ough (2015) questions...

Reference list:

Ough, T. (2014). 'It's so easy to focus on what you can't do after a stroke, rather than what you can'. The Times. 31 December. Available at: https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/GYEXJD027471504/TTDA?u=uniaber&sid=TTDA&xid=f84faf80 (Accessed 23 March 2019).

In-text citation

IBISWorld (2018) noted problems in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

IBISWorld (2018) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed 2 November 2019).

Refinitiv Workspace is a financial database.

Follow this order:

  • Publishing organisation
  • Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets) this is often the current year
  • Title of extract (in single quotation marks) or use the heading at the top of the screen that indicates what the data is or alternatively write your search of how you obtained the data eg. 'Search results for...'
  • Available at: URL  (if available)
  • (Accessed: date)

In-text citation

Refinitiv (2023) noted an increase in 50% in the market for the coffee industry....

Reference List

Refinitiv (2023) 'Sporting Goods Manufacturing in the UK'.  Available at: https://clients1.ibisworld.co.uk/reports/uk/industry/default.aspx?entid=2120  (Accessed: 2 November 2022).

There are many different versions of maps. Look through the following examples and follow the order provided.

Printed map 

Ordnance Survey map

  • Ordnance Survey
  • (Year). (in brackets)
  • Title of map, (in italics)
  • Edition (if not first).
  • Map/sheet number,
  • Scale.
  • Map series if appropriate.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher.

Example: 

In text citation:

(Ordnance Survey, 2016)

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (2016). Aberystwyth and Machynlleth. Ed C. 135, 1:50 000. Landranger series. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Online maps

Digimap

  • Map publisher
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Title/description of map. (in italics)
  • Scale.
  • Source (Map Product).
  • Created online: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap
  • (Created on date).

Example:

In-text citation

(Ordnance Survey, 2011)

Reference list

Ordnance Survey, (2011). Aberystwyth University: Gogerddan Campus, 1:1.500. EDINA Digimap. [online] Available at: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/  (Accessed 31 August 2011).

Google Earth Maps

  • Google Earth version (if applicable),
  • (Year data released). (in brackets)
  • Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. (in italics)
  • Data set (if applicable).
  • [online]
  • Available: URL
  • (Accessed date). 

Example:

In-text citation
(Google Earth, 2008)

Reference list

Google Earth 6.0. (2008).  Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D map, Buildings data layer [online] Available at: http://www.google.com/earth/index/html  (Accessed 23 September 2019).

When referencing standards, use this order:

  • Organisation.
  • (Year of publication). (in brackets)
  • Number:
  • Title of the standard, (in italics)
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher. 

Example: Standards

In-text citation:
(BSI 8001, 2017)

BSI 8001 (2017) says ...

Reference list:
British Standards Institution (2017). BS 8001: Framework for implementing the principles of the circular economy in organizations: Guide, London: British Standards Institution. 

Note: if you find the standards online, add the following after the title:

  • [Online],
  • Available at: URL
  • (Accessed date).

For example:

British Standards Institution (2005) BS EN ISO 17707: Footwear. Test Methods for Outsoles. Flex Resistance, British Standards, [Online]. Available at https://bsol-bsigroup-com. libezproxy.open.ac.uk/en/Bsol-ItemDetail-Page/?pid=000000000030105824 (Accessed 10 May 2017).

When referencing conference papers, follow this order:

Print

  • Author. (Surname, and then initials)
  • (year of publication). (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’,
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Place of publication:
  • Publisher,
  • Page numbers.

Example

In-text citation:
(Jones, 1994)

Jones (1994) says ...

Reference list:

Jones, J. (1994). ‘Polymer blends based on compact disc scrap’, Proceedings of the Annual Technical Conference – Society of Plastics Engineers. San Francisco, 1–5 May. Brookfield, CT: Society of Plastics Engineers, 2865–7.

 

Online conference papers

  • Author. (Surname, then initials)
  • (year of publication) (in brackets)
  • ‘Title of paper’ (single quotation marks)
  • Title of Conference. (in italics)
  • Location,
  • date of conference.
  • Publisher
  • [Online].
  • Available at URL
  • (Accessed date).

Example

In-text citation

(Jones, 1999) 

Jones (1999) says ...

Reference list

Jones, D. (1999) ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. [Online] Available at: http://www.bigbusinesses.co.uk/jonesd (Accessed: 15 April 2018).

To reference a thesis or dissertaion, follow this order:

  • Author. (Surname, then intitials)
  • Year of submission. (in round brackets).
  • Title of thesis (in italics).
  • Degree statement.
  • Degree-awarding body.

If viewed online, add:

  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date).

Example:

In-text citation:

(Brennan, 1993)

Research by Brennan (1993) suggests that…

Reference list:

Brennan, S.M. (1993) Aspects of Equine Pituitary Abnormality. MSc. Aberystwyth University. 

When referencing a blog, use this order:

  • Author. (Surname, followed by initials.)
  • Year that the site was published/last updated. (in round brackets)
  • 'Title of message', (in single quotation marks).
  • Title of website, (in italics).
  • Day/month of posted message
  • [Blog].
  • Available at: URL.
  • (Accessed: date). (in brackets)

Example: Blog

In-text citation:

(Marikar, 2018)

Marikar (2018) suggested...

Reference list:

Marikar, S. (2018). ‘The First Family of Memes', The New Yorker, 1 October. [Blog]. Available at: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/10/01/the-first-family-of-memes (Accessed: 22 January 2019). 

Life Sciences & BVSc Veterinary Science - Any referencing style can be used - consistency is the key

Unless instructed otherwise by a member of staff, you may use whatever referencing system you choose, as long as you format citations and reference list entries consistently. You must provide full bibliographic information, sufficient to enable a reader to find the reference in a library.

Using References

  • Always refer to your departmental and module handbook for further advice on referencing
  • All except well established facts need a reference
  • All citations in the text MUST appear in the reference list
  • The reference must say what you claim it says

** The examples given in the Life Sciences and BVSc Veterinary Science quiz in Blackboard are for the Harvard referencing style. If you use a different style than Harvard, for example, MLA, APA or MHRA, select the corresponding style and department to complete the quiz.   

Maths - Any referencing style can be used - consistency is the key

Full information on referencing in the Department of Mathematics can be found here

Modern Languages - MLA 8th edition (Modern Language Association)

If you are a Modern Languages student, you must follow the referencing guidance supplied by your department when citing and referencing in your written work.

 

In text citations should include the author's name and page reference.  Do not include date or 'pp.'

Examples of In-text citations:
  • If your refer to the author as part of your sentence, include only the page number to which you are referring, e.g:
    • On the subject of identity, Andrews remarks: Landscape in art tells us, or asks us to think about, where we belong(8).
  • If you do not name the author in your sentence, include author name and page number, e.g:
    • The Gothic...is a genre that glorifies transgression(Cohen 883).

Creating the Works Cited list:
When referencing a book follow this order:

  • Authors; surname followed by first name/initials
  • Title, in italics
  • Publisher
  • Year of publication

 

Example: Book, one author:

Works cited list:

Cruise, Colin. Pre-­‐Raphaelite Drawing. Thames and Hudson, 2011.

Heuser, Harry. Immaterial Culture: Literature, Drama and the American Radio Play, 1929-­‐1954. Peter Lang, 2013

Meyrick, Robert. John Elwyn. Ashgate, 2000

Book, more than one author:

Martineau, Jane, et al. Shakespeare in Art. Merrell, 2003.

Meyrick, Robert, and Harry Heuser. The Prints of Stanley Anderson RA. Royal Academy of Arts, 2015

In text citations follow same pattern as physical book should include the author's name and page reference.  Do not include date or 'pp.'

Creating the Works Cited list:
When referencing an ebook follow this order:

  • Authors; surname followed by first name/initials
  • Title, in italics
  • Publisher
  • Year of publication
  • DOI (if available), otherwise URL or permalink
  • Date Accessed.
Example: eBook, one author:

Works cited list:

Harvey, John. Image of the Invisible : the Visualization of Religion in the Welsh Nonconformist Tradition. University of Wales Press, 1999.http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=27384&site=ehost-live. Accessed 30 April 2020. 

When referencing a chapter or section from an edited book, follow this order:

  • Author of the chapter/section. 
  • 'Title of the chapter/section' (in single quotation marks)
  • Title of the book (in italics)
  • Editor of book (in format 'edited by...'). 
  • Date of publication
  • Page reference
Example: Chapter from a book

In text-citation:

(Harvey 55)

(Heuser 29)

Works cited list:

Harvey, John. “The Ghost in the Machine: Spirit and Technology.” Ashgate Research Companion to Paranormal Cultures, edited by Olu Jenzen and Sally R. Munt, Routledge, 2013, pp. 51-64.

Heuser, Harry. “‘Please don’t whip me this time’: The Passions of George Powell of NantEos.” Queer Wales, edited by Huw Osborne, U of Wales P, 2016, pp. 45-64.

Note: Provide the entire page range for the essay/article. In your essay, state only the page(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase was derived. While the author of the essay is mentioned first, the editors of the book in which the essay appears are named after the title of the book.

When referencing a journal article, the entry in the works cited should include:

  • Author(s).
  • "Title of Article." 
  • TItle of journal (in italics)
  • Volume,
  • Issue,
  • Year,
  • pages.

Example: journal article (print)

Heuser, Harry. “Bigotry and Virtue: George Powell and the Question of Legacy.” New Welsh Reader, no. 110, Winter 2015, pp. 18-29.

 If you used an online database instead of a physical library such as Hugh Owen to retrieve the source, identify the database, URL/DOI/permalink and state the access date (see example below). The access date must be the day on which you retrieved the article.

Example: journal article (electronically accessed)

Ward, Maryanne C. “A Painting of the Unspeakable: Henry Fuseli’s The Nightmare and the Creation of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.” Journal of the Midwest Modern Language Association, vol. 33, no. 1, 2000, pp. 20-31. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/ stable/1315115. Accessed 30 Sept. 2016.

 

When referencing a web page, produced by an organisation or individual follow this order:

Example: Web page (no named author)
  • Title of web page "in speech marks"
  • Website/publication
  • URL
  • Access date

In text citation:

("Landscape Painting in Chinese Art.")

Works cited list:

“Landscape Painting in Chinese Art.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/clpg/hd_clpg.htm. Accessed 20 Sept. 2016.

Physics - IoP Journal Guidelines

Please note, this information is taken from the Institute of Physics Author Guidelines for IOP Journals.

"References

We encourage the use of the Harvard or Vancouver reference systems. However, you can use any reference system providing it is sensible and consistent throughout the paper. We will ensure your references adhere to house style during the production process, whatever format you submit them in.

A reference should give your reader enough information to locate the article, and you should take care to ensure that the information is correct so that DOI links can be made.

Citations

Ensure that all references are cited in the text and that all citations have a corresponding reference" (IOP, n,d,, n.p.)

Journal articles

References to journal works should include:

  • Author(s): surname(s) and initial(s)
  • Year
  • [Title of article (optional, but see below)]
  • Standard abbreviated journal title (in italics)
  • Part of journal (e.g. A, B, etc, if appropriate)
  • Volume number (in bold)
  • Page number, page range or article number

Example:

  • Cantillano C, Mukherjee S, Morales-Inostroza L, Real B, Cáceres-Aravena G, Hermann-Avigliano C, Thomson R R and Vicencio R A 2018 New J. Phys. 20 033028

For more than ten authors, the name of the first author should be given followed by et al.

Note that the article title is not mandatory, except for Journal of Neural Engineering (J. Neural Eng.)Measurement Science and Technology (Meas. Sci. Technol.)Physical Biology (Phys. Biol.)Physiological Measurement (Physiol. Meas.) and Physics in Medicine and Biology (Phys. Med. Biol.).

If no individual is named as the author, the reference may be by a collaborative group of authors or by a corporate body, e.g.:

  • The ASDEX Upgrade Team 2002 Theory-based modelling of ASDEX Upgrade discharges with ECH modulation Nucl. Fus42 L11

If a collaboration is appended to one or more authors, the name of the collaboration must come before the year, e.g.:

  • Nakamura K (Particle Data Group) 2010 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys37 075021

Books

References to a book should include:

  • Author(s): surname(s) and initial(s)
  • Year
  • Full title (in italics, the initial letter of each significant word should be upper case; note that if a word is hyphenated then both parts should have an initial capital letter; for example, Non-Classical Mechanics)
  • Town of publication
  • Publisher

Example:

  • Whelan C T 2018 Atomic Structure (Bristol: IOP Publishing)

References to a book may include (optional):

  • Chapter title (lower case roman; caps only for first word and proper nouns)
  • Edition (e.g. 1st edn) (if any)
  • Volume number (if any, given after the contraction ‘vol’)
  • Editor(s) (if any, initials before the surname(s) and preceded by the contraction ‘ed’ [no full point] even if more than one editor)
  • Chapter and/or page number(s) (if appropriate)

Example:

  • Leung C-W and Ng C-K 2018 Spectra of commutative non-unital Banach rings Advances in Ultrametric Analysis (Contemporary Mathematics vol 704) ed A Escassut et al (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) p 91

Conference proceedings

References to conference papers should include:

  • Author(s): surname(s) and initial(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Title of conference (in italics, initial letter of each significant word should be upper case)

Example:

  • Mahanta N K and Abramson A R 2012 13th Intersociety Conf. on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems

References to a conference proceedings may include (optional):

  • Paper title
  • Place and date (month and/or year) of conference (in italics and within parentheses, separated by commas)
  • Volume number
  • Editors
  • Town of publication
  • Publisher
  • Page numbers/other paper designations

SPIE Proceedings, AIP Conference Proceedings and IEEE Transactions

These should be treated as journals:

  • Levin A D and Shmytkova E A 2015 Proc. SPIE 9526 95260P
  • Smith M 2004 AIP Conf Proc. 94 340–9
  • Stoffels E et al 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 1441–57

Conference series

Conference series should include the title of the conference and the title of the series but not the publisher.

The exceptions are Journal of Physics: Conference Series (J. Phys.: Conf. Ser.), IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci.) and IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.), which should be set as journal references, e.g.:

  • Barry R Holstein 2009 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 173 012019
  • V V Kramarenko et al 2016 IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 43 012029
  • S Adarsh et al 2016 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 149 012141

Web links

Only permanent or persistent web links should be used in reference lists. Examples of acceptable links include:

  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • PubMed identifier (PMID)
  • PubMed Central reference number (PMCID)
  • SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Bibliographic Code
  • arXiv e-print number

Pre-prints

References to pre-prints should include:

  • Author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • Pre-print number

Example:

  • Jones R and Brown A 2011 arXiv:0912.1470

Theses

References to theses should include:

  • Author surname and initials
  • Year
  • Type of thesis
  • Institution

Examples:

  • Roberts P 1970 MSc Thesis University of Manchester
  • Dobson C T J 1968 Magnetic transport in reaction–diffusion phenomena PhD Thesis Brunel University, London

The title is optional.

Lecture Notes

References to lecture notes should include:

  • Author surname and initials
  • Year
  • Lecture title