Things to remember - the basics
One of the major features of academic writing is acknowledging the books, journal articles and other information sources that you have used, by citing them one-by-one in your assignment and listing them all at the end in a reference list. Often there are many marks for doing this correctly so it is a skill worth learning as soon as you can.
If you don't acknowledge your sources you might pass off someone else's ideas, quotations etc. as your own. This is plagiarism which is not permitted by the University and can have serious consequences for you.
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This page provides examples of commonly cited sources. Please refer to the APA 7th edittion Healthcare Education departmental guide here:
APA 7th Edition apastyle.apa.org/
This style uses an author-date format for the in-text citations and then the full source details are listed A-Z in the reference list.
If you are citing a direct quote, make sure to use "quotation marks" and to include the page number after the year: (Adams, 2019, p. 61).
If you are citing a book or article which has several authors, follow these rules:
2 authors: always cite them both (Polit & Beck, 2017)
3-20 authors: Cite the first authors’ last name followed by et al (Perry et al., 2020)
First citation: Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC, 2018)...or...(Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC), 2018).
Subsequent citations: NMC (2018)...or...(NMC, 2018).
See the following tabs for advice on creating the reference list.
Creating the reference list:
When referencing a book follow this order:
Barber, P., & Robertson, D. (2020). Essentials of pharmacology for nurses (4th ed.). Open University Press.
Jasper, M. (2013). Beginning reflective practice (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning.
When referencing an e-book follow this order:
*If the ebook is from an academic research database and has no DOI or stable URL, end the book reference after the publisher name. Do not include the name of the database in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book.
Loschiavo, J. (2015). Fast Facts for the School Nurse: School Nursing in a Nutshell (2nd ed.). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1891/9780826128775
Cottrell, S. (2019). The study skills handbook (5th ed.). Red Globe Press.
When referencing a chapter from an edited book follow this order:
Grayer, J., Baxter, J., Blackburn, L., Cooper, J., Curtis, E., Dvorjez, L., Finn, L., Gaynor, D., Henderson, B., Jagger, C., Keating, L., Leigh-Doyle, J., Lister, S., Mathiah, R., & Mohanmmed, A. (2021). Communication, psychological wellbeing and safeguarding. In S. E. Lister, J. Hofland & H. Grafton (Eds.), The Royal Marsden manual of clinical nursing procedures (10th ed., pp. 133-204). Wiley-Blackwell.
Smyth, M. J., & Filipkowski, B.K. (2010). Coping with stress. In D. French, K. Vadhara, A.A. Kaptein, & J. Weinman (Eds.), Health Psychology (pp. 271-283). Blackwell Publishing.
*When including this as an in-text citation, you would just cite the chapter authors and not the editors. For example: Smyth and Filipkowski (2010) state that… or…(Smyth & Filipkowski, 2010).
When referencing an article follow this order:
Edwards, A. A., Steacy, L. M., Siegelman, N., Rigobon, V. M., Kearns, D. M., Rueckl, J. G., & Compton, D. L. (2022). Unpacking the unique relationship between set for variability and word reading development: Examining word- and child-level predictors of performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 114(6), 1242–1256. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000696
Jones, A., Rahman, R.J., & O, J.A. (2019). Crisis in the Countryside - Barriers to Nurse Recruitment and Retention in Rural Areas of High-Income Countries: A Qualitative Meta-Analysis. Journal of rural studies, 72, 153–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.10.007
When referencing a webpage follow this order:
World Health Organisation. (2019). WHO updates global guidance on medicines and diagnostic tests to address health challenges, prioritise highly effective therapeutics, and improve affordable access. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/09-07-2019-who-updates-global-guidance-on-medicines-and-diagnostic-tests-to-address-health-challenges-prioritize-highly-effective-therapeutics-and-improve-affordable-access
A document on the web can include government reports or policy documents.
Nursing & Midwifery Council. (2018). The Code: Professional standards of practice and behaviour for nurses, midwives and nursing associates. https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/nmc-publications/nmc-code.pdf
Powys Teaching Health Board. (2017). The Health and Care Strategy for Powys: A vision to 2027 and beyond. https://pthb.nhs.wales/about-us/key-documents/strategies-and-plans/health-and-care-strategy-for-powys-2017-2027-summary/
Welsh Government. (2018). A Healthier Wales: our Plan for Health and Social Care. https://www.gov.wales/sites/default/files/publications/2021-09/a-healthier-wales-our-plan-for-health-and-social-care.pdf
Welsh Government. (2022). Quality statement for palliative and end of life care for Wales. https://www.gov.wales/sites/default/files/pdf-versions/2022/10/5/1665148261/quality-statement-palliative-and-end-life-care-wales.pdf
(Mental Health (Wales) Measure, 2010) or Mental Health (Wales) Measure, (2010)
Mental Health (Wales) Measure 2010. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/mwa/2010/7/contents/enacted
(Children Act, 1989) or Children Act (1989)
Children Act 1989, c. 41. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1989/41
Supreme court case
(Montgomery v. Lanarkshire Health Board, 2015) or Montgomery v. Lanarkshire Health Board (2015)
Montgomery v. Lanarkshire Health Board, UKSC 11 (2015). https://www.supremecourt.uk/cases/docs/uksc-2013-0136-judgment.pdf
The NMC Code
Remember to write out the Nursing & Midwifery Council in full the first time it appears in your assignment.
First citation: Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC, 2018) or (Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC), 2018).
NMC (2018) or (NMC, 2018).
It would appear once in your reference list:
Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC, 2018, Section 7.3) or (Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC), 2018, Section 7.3).
Within APA referencing you are always encouraged to go to the original source. However, sometimes this is not always possible perhaps because of a lack of access to the original source or simply because the original source is unavailable. In these instances, you would cite and reference these works slightly differently as presented below.
Gibbs’ reflective cycle (1988) as cited in Jasper (2013) indicates that...
A seminal theory in reflective practice, is Gibbs’ reflective cycle (Gibbs, 1988, as cited in Jasper, 2013).
In the reference list
Jasper, M. (2013). Beginning reflective practice (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning.
Use newspaper articles as a starting point for research. They are not considered academic sources. Use the following format:
Duggan, C. (2022, September 5). Aberystwyth Uni nursing degree to encourage Welsh speakers. BBC. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-62779992
Sisley, D. (2020, February 22). Can science cure a broken heart?. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2020/feb/22/can-science-cure-a-broken-heart
The University guidelines state that "presenting work generated by AI as if it were your own" is a form of plagiarism and therefore constitutes unacceptable academic practice. Full details on the University's guidelines on unacceptable practice can be found here.
Guidance on the ethical and effective use of AI for learning is found in our LibGuide Utilising AI in the Library: A Student's Guide: What is AI?
Social media posts, such as Twitter and Facebook, are not considered academic sources. Use them as a starting point and reference to your academic research. Use the following format:
Barack Obama. (2009, October 9). Humbled [Facebook update]. Retrieved May, 14, 2020, from http://www.facebook.com/posted.php?id=6815841748&share
University of Oxford. (2020, November 23). Oxford University’s ‘vaccine for the world’ is effective [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xHJ_RqeXXy0
*In-text citation quote “The vaccine is shown to protect against hospitalisation and severe disease” (University of Oxford, 2020, 0:18).
How do I reference the 6Cs?
NHS England. (2016). Compassion in practice: Evidencing the impact. London. https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/cip-yr-3.pdf
How do I reference a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline?
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2022). Hypertension in adults: Diagnosis and management (NICE Guideline NG136). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng136
How do I reference the practice assessment document and ongoing record of achievement?
All Wales Pre-Registration Nursing and Midwifery Group. (2020). All Wales practice assessment document and ongoing record of achievement for pre-registration nursing programmes. Health Education and Improvement Wales. https://heiw.nhs.wales/files/once-for-wales/documents/all-wales-practice-assessment-document/
How do I reference the Francis report?
Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry. (2013). Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry: Executive summary (HC 947). The Stationery Office. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/279124/0947.pdf
Why can't Healthcare students access help with referencing for 7 days prior to an assignment due date?