Skip to main content
Chat now
Sgwrsiwch nawr

Referencing & Plagiarism Awareness: 7. Which referencing style to use?

Referencing Styles

Aberystwyth University does not promote the use of a universal referencing style as some styles are better suited to a particular subject discipline than others. Individual Departments will therefore have a preferred referencing style.

 

 

Top Tips:

Use the guides below to locate which style your Department uses.

MLA 8th edition

The Art Department's guide to using the MLA can be found here. (2016)

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

OSCOLA

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

APA

Examples of this reference style can be found in the Referencing Examples tab of this guide.

Footnote/Endnote

(Please note: this information is taken from the Writing and Referencing in InterPol handbook which can be found here)

Using the Footnote/ Endnote System

There is much greater similarity between the two components of the footnote-endnote system than is the case with the Harvard/ in-text system.  The reference in the bibliography will normally be the same as the reference in the footnote/ endnote but without the need to refer to a specific page reference.
  
First component

In the footnote/endnote system, the references are marked by a superscript number in the text and placed either at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the essay (endnotes).
 
For example, in the text of your essay a reference number, normally superscripted, should be added:
...in such a system war is said to be inevitable.1

Please note that this reference number is placed after the full-stop not before. At the bottom of the page or the end of the essay should appear a list corresponding to the reference numbers in the text. References should be in full the first time they are mentioned.
 
Thereafter the author's name and an abbreviated title should be used (do not use op. cit. or ibid. as this can cause confusion if the text is revised later). For example:
Hence it is the system structure which is claimed to be the crucial variable.2
 
 
Second component
The second component of the footnote/endnote system is a complete list of references given at the end of the essay, arranged in alphabetical order of the author’s last name. You should provide a reference for all sources consulted during the researching and writing of the essay even if you have not cited them directly in the essay. The references should conform to the format given in the examples on the following pages.

 

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Harvard

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Harvard is used or footnote/endnote.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

IoP Journal guidelines

This information is taken from the Institute of Physics Author Guidlines which can be accessed here: https://publishingsupport.iopscience.iop.org/authoring-for-journals/

"References

We encourage the use of the Harvard or Vancouver reference systems. However, you can use any reference system providing it is sensible and consistent throughout the paper. We will ensure your references adhere to house style during the production process, whatever format you submit them in.

A reference should give your reader enough information to locate the article, and you should take care to ensure that the information is correct so that DOI links can be made.

Citations

Ensure that all references are cited in the text and that all citations have a corresponding reference" (IOP, n,d,, n.p.)

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

MHRA

English & Creative Writing use a slightly-adapted version of the MHRA style.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

Examples of this referencing style can be found on the Referencing Examples page of this guide.

 

Any referencing style can be used - consistency is the key

Full information on referencing in the Department of Computer Science can be found here.

This information is from the IBERS Departmental Referencing Style Good academic practice webpage:

Unless instructed otherwise by a member of staff, you may use whatever referencing system you choose, as long as you format citations and reference list entries consistently. You must provide full bibliographic information, sufficient to enable a reader to find the reference in a library.

Using References

  • All except well established facts need a reference
  • All citations in the text MUST appear in the reference list and vice versa
  • The reference must say what you claim it says

Full information on referencing in the Department of Mathematics can be found here